The main issue of this paper is the discussion around the question "How can we teach and motivate the why-generation learners and the generation Z learners?". The aim of our project was to find out teaching and learning methods that teachers and learners can use in 21st-century classrooms. Strategies how to engage gen Y and gen Z learners in the learning process should be found.
2. 728 How to Motivate our Students to Study Physics? even more Internet savvy than gen Y was. As written on in pairs or groups. Most of the teaching hours were rather Education views , the following result can be shortly focused on teachers. In the teaching hours very little time summarized: Baby boomers changed politics, Gen X was devoted to a recap of the curriculum. As to the usage of changed family, Gen Y changed work and Gen Z will change modern tools and technologies in more than 40 % of teaching education. classes no medium was used. Most experiments were carried Today's elementary and middle schools are becoming out in the traditional way. In the analysis of verbal better and better equipped with information and expression, it was found out that the average number of communications technologies (ICT). Some teachers perceive teacher‘s words was 2976, while student’s – 616 . this fact very positively and try to engage digital media into Our own research was also focused on the study of educational process. Nowadays it is also agreed in public that physics´ lessons - the design of the lesson - realized by today's schools cannot teach our kids just using chalk and teachers with different specializations and different lengths blackboard. But only up to date school equipment and of teaching experience. In the framework of our modern technology will not improve the quality of teaching. investigation auditions at 10 different elementary schools Use of multimedia is not the only way how to motivate (including private ones and for students with special ADHD students in the classroom. The technology has the potential disorder - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) in cities to modernize teaching and can provide a support, in with different number of inhabitants were carried out. particular, to the constructivist approach of acquisition of During the observation period the following indicators were skills and knowledge. Contribution lies mainly in the fact considered: that modern technology will accelerate and automate some teachers’ activity - goal setting (e.g., using active of the activities that are tedious, repetitive. The teacher gets verbs " define ", "prove“), more time for the use of activation methods of teaching. timing goals, structure of the lesson, work with Many teachers involves ICT into teaching just because they students, discipline know that students enjoy using the computer. Often they are methods not able to exploit the potential that digital technologies have teaching aids given to teaching. As states Zounek  the issue is a the use of ICT didactic effectiveness: the children are happy when they can lesson development and environmental conditions. be at their computer, but the teacher, because of "packed curriculum", cannot afford it too often. Taking into Findings showed that teaching in those schools is consideration the huge investment that involves schools conducted in the traditional way. The goal of the teaching technologization, such perception of ICT as a teaching brake was formulated, in 40 % cases, immediately after the start of seems somewhat paradoxical. It often indicates that teachers the teaching hour and mostly using active verbs. Explanation are poorly prepared to use ICT technology for didactic of the new material was provided by a teacher, the general purposes. It therefore stresses the baseline at today's school criteria of correctness and adequacy of verbal expression operation due to the link teacher – student and motivation - being held. Teachers were able to ask students factually students can monitor digital technology, the teacher's skills correct and understandable questions, involving the whole to operate ICT is something rather different from that to be class into the dialogue. Unfortunately, these activating used it in teaching. teaching methods were used in a small part of the lesson. An The problem often lies in a small compendium of teacher interesting and intriguing explanation of the material about how to use ICT in teaching different subjects. appeared only in 30 % of the lessons. Discipline was maintained by warning (50 % of cases), shouting, slamming textbook, referring to the reduction of classification. All 2. Research Area teachers used various equipment during teaching - computer with a data projector (in two classes), in one class - The aim of the research was to analyse teaching Physics video, mostly used equipment were classical educational provided by different teachers in different schools. Our aids, sometimes - non-traditional experimental aids (PET project was intended as a follow-up research to the activity of bottles). Interesting was the lesson in the classroom with the Educational Research Centre in Brno. Between children with ADHD. These children tend to disturb, to be in 2004-2007 this centre carried an extensive research on the the spotlight, talking fast. On the other hand, these children second level of elementary schools using video-analysis were very active in learning, in case of making a mistake (Janík 2009). Goals of the monitoring have been, for they were trying to find other solution, they discussed the example: organizational forms of teaching, stages of problems. In the rest of schools we visited the majority of teaching, teaching materials and media used in education, students was passive, unwilling to answer or seek for new opportunities of verbal expression offered by the instructions. solutions. One of the most important conclusions of this The survey showed that average 14 minutes of the teaching research is that in addition to the use of data projector and, in class (of 45 minutes) were devoted to talking with students, one case, an interactive whiteboard, the method of teaching 10 minutes – to presentation of a new material, 4.5 minutes – has not changed. Even in today's school prevails classic to independent students’ work and 3.75 minutes to work lesson structure without the use of ICT that does not conform
3. Universal Journal of Educational Research 3(10): 727-734, 2015 729 to the requirements for the education of students’ generation a) Comprehensive concept map - is created by the Y and generation Z. The same trend persists in a large teacher, includes the basic concepts and relationships number of secondary schools, where only few teachers use between them the potential of problem and project based learning, b) Teaching tool - a graphical interpretation of the teamwork, interdisciplinary relations and computer curriculum, it is possible to use only a part of the map controlled experiments. relating to the appropriate section of the curriculum c) Learning aid - students create their own maps. The map can include concepts from everyday life and 3. Output of Research other natural sciences. The map is not correct or incorrect, it As a help to secondary school teachers a set of concept indicates the current state of student’ knowledge and maps, based on our findings, has been developed. These understanding of the concepts discussed. maps were created according to physics textbooks used in Concept maps, which should serve as a diagnostic tool, secondary schools in the Czech Republic. Due to the can be evaluated by a teacher using the following criteria: Generation Y way of learning the mentioned structuring complexity, inclusion of basic concepts, and existence of concepts were developed as a tool to increase the quality of meaningful relationships between concepts. learning. Students can also create conceptual maps in free During the course Didactic of Physics students – future available programs and take advantage of ICT usage. The teachers of physics are getting familiar with this tool and conceptual structure can also indicate the current state of learn how to create and evaluate conceptual maps. Software students’ knowledge and can be kept supplemented and that was used - CmapTools, SMARTIdeas software 5.1, refined. It also allows variable use of concept maps in mind maple, free mind. Figure 1. Concept map – example (free fall)
4. 730 How to Motivate our Students to Study Physics? Figure 2. Concept map – example (circuit of alternating current) (https://c1.staticflickr.com/7/6142/5940581568_1db150f055_z.jpg) Figure 3. The electromagnetic spectrum Upgrading existing modules Modules have been presented at more than 50 schools in the country. Modules content has been upgraded - it was As stated in the paper at the conference GIREP extended by using of modern technology - thermal imagers 2013(GIREP- International Research Group on Physics and digital microscope, including proposals for series of Teaching) , to help our teachers (so as to motivate experiments with these tools. students) modules that use inter-disciplinary links were prepared. The application of natural sciences in everyday Examples of new topics life and also the use of modern technology is underlined to. Primary and secondary schools expressed strong interest, in Thermal imager - thematic units in the high school physics particular, to the presentation of the modules Physics and curriculum: electromagnetic radiation, optics - blackbody Criminology, Culinary Physics and Environmental Physics. radiation.
5. Universal Journal of Educational Research 3(10): 727-734, 2015 731 Basic knowledge: are assigned to each of different colour temperatures. Among Thermography is a measuring method, which allows you the most frequently discovered palette colours in to display graphically the temperature on the surface of the thermography are: polar ice, iron, and rainbow. object being tracked. Infrared radiation is emitted by all bodies whose temperature is above absolute zero. Relations, which are used in thermography and which are part of the school curriculum: Planck's law Planck's law expresses the dependence of the intensity of blackbody radiation on the thermodynamic temperature and wavelength. The claim is based on the observation that each body having a surface temperature above absolute zero emits electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength corresponding to its temperature. 2πhc 2 Wλb = ⋅10 −6 [W·m-3] hc λ5 e λkT − 1 where Wλb is the spectral density of the intensity of black body radiation at wavelength λ , c is the speed of light (3 ∙ 108 m ⋅ s-1, h is Planck's constant ( 6.626 ∙ 10- 34 J ∙ s), k is Boltzmann's constant (1.381 ∙ 10-23 J ∙ K-1), T is absolute temperature of the black body [K] and λ - wavelength [m]. Wien's displacement law The Law describes the change in wavelengths at which blackbody energy is radiated in dependence on the change of thermodynamic temperature λmax = b / T [m], where λmax is the wavelength of maximum emission, T is the thermodynamic temperature of a black body, and b is Wien constant (b = 2.898 ∙ 10-3 m ∙ K). Stefan - Boltzmann law Stefan- Boltzmann law describes the overall intensity of blackbody radiation. The law says that the intensity of the radiation increases in direct proportion to the fourth power of the thermodynamic temperature of the radiating body. However, in real conditions we cannot meet with absolutely black body; hence we need to complement Stefan - Boltzmann relation with the emissivity ε of the body. Firure 4. Palette – polar ice, iron, rainbow Wb = εσT 4 -2 [W · m ], where Wb is the spectral density of the intensity of black body radiation, ε is body emissivity, σ is the Stefan - Boltzmann constant (σ = 5.670 ∙ 10 -8 W ⋅ m-2 ⋅K-4 ) and T is the thermodynamic temperature [K]. Thermo gram The output from the thermal imaging camera is an infrared image called a thermo gram, or thermal image. Thermal imagers allow the user to determine the temperature at each point of the thermo gram. Infrared light is invisible to the human eye, for this reason, infrared images are visualized in the visible spectrum using different colour palettes, which
6. 732 How to Motivate our Students to Study Physics? Figure 5. Thermogram of two different people earlobes Figure 7. Thermogram of heating water Culinary physics Heating water with a gas cooker – the pot so as the – linked to the topics: transport of heat, thermal surroundings is getting hot. Heating with the induction hob – conductivity - we can show the process of liquids heating only the liquid in the pot changes the temperature. with gas cookers, induction hobs. It is interesting to observe Environmental issues thermo gram during ice cubes melting in liquids of different - thermal imager can detect errors in solar panels. density (linked to environmental issues - global warming, Damaged cells can cause abnormal heating - and therefore melting glaciers). they can cause a fire. In addition, damaged cells can cause substantial loss of performance of the whole system (the whole module strings). Figure 6. Thermogram of melting ice cubes In the left beaker is a brine, in the right one is pure water. After adding an ice cube into the beakers, in the left one a layer of cold water can be seen, in the right beaker the whole water is getting cold. （http://www.pro-pasiv.cz/diagnostika/termovize-ve-fotovoltaice/) Figure 8. Defect in a solar panel USB microscope and its use Universal serial bus (USB) - microscope can be connected to a personal computer, a laptop or a tablet and observe objects in their live image, capture images, save them in the format and later work with them. Observation is simpler than with a light microscope and for the normal school
7. Universal Journal of Educational Research 3(10): 727-734, 2015 733 experimental environment it has sufficient magnification. students are motivated to study physics when they can use Objects that can be observed have dimensions from dozens modern information technology, computers, internet, mobile to thousands of microns. Within the module Physics and phones. The majority of schools are good equipped with criminology we can use this microscope to analyse fibres and multimedia. We have found out that teachers use these hair, observe small objects found at the „crime scene“. For multimedia rarely; they are not able to take advantage of this teaching optics it is possible to demonstrate the mixing of teaching aids. Reason for it can be lack of skills and colours – visualize sub - pixels. unwillingness to learn something new. We tried to design a variety of activities, where these devices could be effectively and meaningfully used. The process of learning physics we made more attractive and thus contributing to the acquisition of competences defined by the school curriculum. The new Gen Z cannot live without digital technology, but they are not interested how it works. Technology is only a tool for them. When we will achieve better results in the educational process, it is necessary to educate in-service so as pre-service teachers the new approach in teaching and learning science. It is necessary to teach them creativity, exploration skills and understanding of natural phenomena. The activities mentioned above will help to improve the success of teaching and learning science. Acknowledgements The paper is supported by the project OPVK CZ.1.07/2.2.00/28.0182. REFERENCES  R. Holubová, R. (2013). Innovations in physics´ teacher education. Proceedings of The International Conference on Physics Education, Active learning – in a changing world of new technologies, ICPE-EPEC, 459-466, Prague, 2013. Figure 9. USB microscope – hair and instant coffee  R. Holubová, P. Keprtová. Repetitorium High School Physics. VUP Olomouc, 2012.  A. Ivanova, A. Smrikarov. The new generations of students and the future of e-learning in higher education. International conference on e-learning and the knowledge society – e-Learning ’09. 2009.  T. Janík et al. The Power of Video Studies in Investigating Teaching and Learning in the Classroom. Waxmann, Münster, Empirische Bildungsforschung, 2009.  K. MacLeod. Physics Education and STSE: Perspectives From the Literature, European J of Physics Education 4, 86 – 94, 2013.  P. Trunk. Generation Z will revolutionize education On-line available from  http://blog.penelopetrunk.com/2011/03/30/generation-z-will-r Figure 10. USB microscope – RGB sub pixels evolutionize-education/.  M. Prensky. Digital natives, digital immigrants. From On the Horizon (MCB University Press, 9 (5), 2001. 4. Conclusions  C.P. Schofield, S. Honoré. Generation Y and learning. The The outcomes of our research have confirmed that Ashridge Journal Generation Y and Learning. Winter
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