Effective Teaching Strategies for Teachers and Schools

Contributed by:
Jonathan James
Teachers are one of the key elements in any school and effective teaching is one ofthe key propellers for school improvement. This review is concerned with how todefine a teacher’s effectiveness and what makes an effective teacher. It draws outimplications for policymakers in education and for improving classroom practiceThis pdf is designed by Education Development Trust. This report highlights key issues and findings of two related but distinctivetopics – how to define a teacher’s effectiveness and what is known about effectiveteaching practices. It also seeks to identify the implications for policymakers ineducation and for improving classroom practice. The report also includes the studyof inspection evidence that involves making judgements about teaching quality inschools.
1. Review by James Ko, The Hong Kong Institute of Education and
Pamela Sammons, with Linda Bakkum, Oxford University Department of Education
Education Development Trust Highbridge House, 16–18 Duke Street, Reading, Berkshire RG1 4RU
T +44 (0) 118 902 1000 E [email protected] W www.educationdevelopmenttrust.com
REPRINT OF 2014 REPORT 978-1-909437-75-3
Contents Education Development Trust 4
School improvement: international reviews
of best practice 5
Executive summary 7
Introduction 8
The Definition challenge 11
The Perspective challenge 17
Inspection evidence 18
Teachers’ perceptions 23
Students’ perceptions 25
Principals’ perceptions 26
The Characterisation challenge 29
General profiles of effective teachers and
effective teaching 29
Characterisation and categorisation of
effective teaching practices 31
The primacy of teacher effects and the
relative effectiveness of teacher variables 33
Differential departmental and school
impacts on teacher effects 36
The Measurement challenge 39
Multidimensionality of teaching practices 39
Measuring with two instruments and
other measures 40
The Theorisation challenge 45
Developing valid instrument(s) to
characterise generic teacher effectiveness
in different countries 45
Contrasting instruments and characterising
generic teacher effectiveness 46
Combining qualitative and
quantitative approaches to evaluating
teacher effectiveness 48
Summary and conclusions 51
References 54
Education Development Trust
Education Development Trust, established over 40 years ago as the Centre for
British Teaching and later known as CfBT Education Trust, is a large educational
organisation providing education services for public benefit in the UK and
internationally. We aspire to be the world’s leading provider of education services,
with a particular interest in school effectiveness.
Our work involves school improvement through inspection, school workforce
development and curriculum design for the UK’s Department for Education, local
authorities and an increasing number of independent and state schools, free
schools and academies. We provide services direct to learners in our schools.
Internationally we have successfully implemented education programmes for
governments in the Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia, and
work on projects funded by donors such as the Department for International
Development, the European Commission, the Australian Department of
Foreign Affairs and Trade, the World Bank and the US Agency for International
Development, in low- and middle-income countries.
Surpluses generated by our operations are reinvested in our educational research
Please visit www.educationdevelopmenttrust.com for more information.
School improvement: international reviews of best practice
Working with partners including the Department of Education at Oxford University,
the Centre for Equity in Education at the University of Manchester, the University
of Glasgow, the University of Nottingham and the Hong Kong Institute of
Education, Education Development Trust has commissioned a series of reviews of
international literature. These reviews cover a range of topics related to school
improvement including assessment for learning; the inclusion of students with
special educational needs; effective teaching practice; school self-evaluation; and
successful school leadership.
The idea that schools can impact positively on student outcomes is a crucial driver
in the rise of interest in school improvement research and practice. These reviews
highlight international examples of best practice in order to effect change and
identify how effective school improvement manifests itself. It forms a useful tool
for schools and school leaders, but also acts as a lesson for policymakers in terms
of what works around the world.
This review focuses on:
Effective teaching
Teachers are one of the key elements in any school and effective teaching is one of
the key propellers for school improvement. This review is concerned with how to
define a teacher’s effectiveness and what makes an effective teacher. It draws out
implications for policymakers in education and for improving classroom practice.
The other four reviews in this series focus on:
Assessment for learning
Assessment for learning – where the first priority is to promote learning – is
a key means of initiating improvement. The features, strategies and principles
underpinning assessment for learning form the basis of this review.
From exclusion to inclusion
With a specific focus on children with special educational needs (SEN), this review
addresses the forms of classroom practice that can help all children to participate.
The review particularly focuses on elements of inclusive education and the
implications for schools and school leaders.
School self-evaluation for school improvement
School self-evaluation can be a fundamental force in achieving school
improvement. This review establishes what the key debates are in relation to
school self-evaluation, what principles and processes are associated with it, and
what the implications are for school self-evaluation as a means of leading school
improvement. The review also incorporates a framework for conducting self-
evaluation and case study examples from systems and schools that have previously
undergone the process.
Successful leadership
School leaders are under considerable pressure to demonstrate the contribution
of their work to school improvement, which has resulted in the creation
of a wide range of literature which addresses leadership in the context of
school improvement. This review pays particular attention to issues including
transformational leadership, instructional/pedagogical leadership and distributed
Education Development Trust is a world authority on school improvement. We
work directly with schools and governments improving education outcomes
through evaluation, training and professional development programmes. This
series of reviews fits into our aim to develop evidence for education and supports
our goal to provide school improvement programmes which are evidence based.
Executive summary
Teacher effectiveness is generally referred to in terms of a focus on student
outcomes and the teacher behaviours and classroom processes that promote
better student outcomes.
This review, based upon research evidence, suggests that effective teachers:
• are clear about instructional goals
• are knowledgeable about curriculum content and the strategies for teaching it
• communicate to their students what is expected of them, and why
• make expert use of existing instructional materials in order to devote more time to
practices that enrich and clarify the content
• are knowledgeable about their students, adapting instruction to their needs and
anticipating misconceptions in their existing knowledge
• teach students meta-cognitive strategies and give them opportunities to master
• address higher- as well as lower-level cognitive objectives
• monitor students’ understanding by offering regular appropriate feedback
• integrate their instruction with that in other subject areas
• accept responsibility for student outcomes.
The review shows that in order to achieve good teaching, good subject knowledge
is a prerequisite. Also, the skilful use of well-chosen questions to engage and
challenge learners, and to consolidate understanding, is an important feature, as is
the effective use of assessment for learning.
It goes on to identify a number of characteristics of good schools, suggesting they:
• establish consistency in teaching and learning across the organisation
• engender a culture of professional debate and developmental lesson observation
• rigorously monitor and evaluate what they are doing
• prioritise the teaching of literacy, especially in a child’s early years
• focus on the needs, interests and concerns of each individual learner.
This report highlights key issues and findings about two related but distinctive
topics – how to define a teacher’s effectiveness and what is known about effective
teaching practices. It also seeks to identify the implications for policymakers in
education and for improving classroom practice. The report also includes the study
of inspection evidence that involves making judgements about teaching quality in
It examines the meaning of ‘effective teaching’ and the ways the literature defines
who are considered to be ‘effective teachers’ both in terms of research and
inspection evidence and also from the perspectives of various key stakeholders in
education (teachers, school principals, students and parents). Drawing on a large
body of research evidence, it seeks to identify and summarise some of the key
characteristics and processes of effective classroom practices, including particular
features of pedagogy (by which we refer to strategies of instruction).1
In summarising the evidence the main focus is on features of effective teaching
and classroom organisation that lead to better student outcomes. We also
identify some implications for policymakers and practitioners seeking to improve
educational practice and student outcomes. In addition, the review highlights
some of the difficulties inherent in trying to identify teacher effects, and in the
characterisation and categorisation of effective practices. We consider some
issues of the measurement challenge that have to be considered in trying to
identify teacher effects and the characteristics and processes of effective teaching.
Examples of classroom observation instruments that can be used to identify
various dimensions of effective teaching practices are also discussed.
The main sections in this report discuss the definition of teacher and teaching
effectiveness in more detail, outline the different perspectives and sources of
evidence that can be used, and explore measurement issues. Then findings are
presented on the knowledge base and characteristics of effectiveness in teaching
and classroom practices, and models and theories used in teacher effectiveness
research (TER) and school effectiveness research (SER). Five interrelated challenges
are used to organise the review evidence, and for each of these challenges, a
number of relevant questions will be addressed (see Table 1, following).
Pedagogy refers to the strategies of instruction, or a style of instruction. For example, Muijs & Reynolds (2000) compared the relative effectiveness of instruction methods like Direct
Teaching, Individual Practice, Interactive Teaching, and Constructivist Methods.
Challenges Relevant questions
The Definition challenge How are we going to define effective teaching?
Should it be restricted to teaching in the classroom only?
Is effectiveness best viewed in relation to the teacher’s influence
on student academic outcomes?
What other educational outcomes do we look at?
When do we look at the outcomes?
The Perspective challenge Who are best placed to judge teacher effectiveness?
How do they define what constitutes effective teaching?
The Characterisation challenge What makes a teacher highly effective?
What do they do to make their teaching effective?
What does their teaching look like?
How can we characterise effective teaching?
How can we measure its relative effects?
The Measurement challenge How can we measure effective teaching?
What instruments do we use?
What sources of evidence should we look at?
What evidence should we give more weight to?
The Theorisation challenge How can we organise research evidence on effective teaching in a
holistic fashion?
How do the models explain the contingencies of effective teaching?
How do the models address the problem of differential teacher
effectiveness and its consequences?
The Definition
Defining the effective teacher, effective teaching and teaching effectiveness
can be complex and controversial. ‘Effectiveness’ is a contested term that
can evoke strong emotions because of its perceived links with notions of
professional competency and high stakes accountability in some systems.
is a term that
It may question individual teachers’ beliefs about their professional
was developed
autonomy.2 Notions of what constitutes high quality or good teaching, the
to provide a
idea that teaching is an art or a craft rather than a science, are sometimes
more contained
used to raise concerns with narrower concepts of effectiveness. However,
definition than
beliefs about what constitutes ‘good’ or ‘high’ quality practice in teaching
notions of ‘good’ or
can vary markedly for different age groups of students, at different times
‘quality’ education
and in different contexts.
Educational effectiveness is a term that was developed to provide a more
contained definition than notions of ‘good’ or ‘quality’ education. It relates to
the idea of examining effectiveness at different levels of an education system,
such as nationally, at a Local Authority/School district level, for individual
schools, for departments within a school or for individual teachers in terms of
their success in achieving particular goals or educational outcomes.
Educational effectiveness researchers who study school and teacher
effectiveness have emphasised the need to unpack the concept of effectiveness
by addressing questions such as:
• Effective in promoting which outcomes? This relates to the goals of education
for students.
• Effective over what time period? This relates to the idea of change and
improvement over time.
• Effective for whom? This relates to effectiveness in promoting outcomes for
different groups of students (e.g. by gender or ethnic/language group).3
Sammons (1996); Day (2004) 3 Sammons (1996).
Key idea:
Effective teaching requires criteria for effectiveness. These criteria refer to the
objectives of education in general and of teaching in particular. Visions about
the criteria are the result of a political and societal debate, but educational
professionals, teachers and schools can also take part in it. Although objectives of
education have changed over time, language, reading and mathematics remain the
core studies. 4
When we seek to define educational effectiveness in this way we recognise that a
focus on outcomes reflects the value-driven choices and priorities about the goals
of education that are deemed to be important in the wider education system (for
example by policymakers in central or local government and at the individual school
or departmental level).5 The emphasis on the achievement of agreed outcomes is The emphasis on
often prioritised. For example, one definition that has been given is: the achievement of
A teacher is effective if he/she can accomplish the planned goals and assigned agreed outcomes
tasks in accordance with school goals. 6 is often prioritised
Thus, the objectives of education and the definitions of the quality and effectiveness
of education are closely connected. This means that defining effective teaching
must be done in relation to understanding the objectives of education. Promoting
students’ cognitive development can be seen as one of the prime purposes of
education and teaching, though there are also likely to be other important social,
behavioural and affective current and future oriented purposes and goals of
education. These might include developing students to become good citizens,
promoting their physical, emotional and economic well-being and inculcating skills
and attitudes that encourage lifelong learning. Therefore:
Even when the objectives of education change, the stable component in it is that
at least schools and education have to contribute to the cognitive development
of students. The same holds for teaching. Even when we expect that schools
can contribute to more than academic outcomes, and teaching is more than
instruction, effective instruction remains an important component of it. 7
Key questions:
• What are the main goals or objectives for education in my education system?
• How have they changed during the last decade and what are the implications for
schools and for teachers’ work?
Terms such as ‘instructional effectiveness’, ‘teacher effectiveness’ and ‘teaching
effectiveness’ have been used interchangeably in much of the research literature.8
This reflects the fact that the primary nature of a teacher’s work is instructional and
that teaching or instruction is generally carried out in the classroom. Part of the
confusion is because sometimes the focus is on the teacher’s influence on student
outcomes, and at other times on the classroom behaviours and practices that
Creemers (1999: 51) 5 Stufflebeam & Shinkfield (1995); Sammons (1996) 6 Campbell et al. (2004: 61) 7 Creemers (1999: 52) 8 Like Scheerens (2004, 2008)
teachers use to promote better outcomes for students. Table 2 illustrates some
definitions found in the literature.
Teacher effectiveness is generally referred to in terms of the focus on student
outcomes and the teacher behaviours and classroom processes that promote
better student outcomes as outlined in the TER definitions (numbered 1–3 in
Table 2). However, some authors view teacher effectiveness in a broader sense.
They adopt criteria that seek to encompass the duties that are seen to be part
of the wider role of teachers in the 21st century (as suggested in definitions 4–6
of Table 2), because the role of a teacher is rarely restricted to instruction only.
In many countries a teacher’s work has extended beyond the instructional or
pedagogical role in the classroom. He/she may be facilitating his/her colleagues’
teaching, engaging in broader leadership roles in the school, enhancing the quality
of his/her teaching through his/ her own reflection or engaging in professional
development programmes.
An operative definition focusing The effectiveness of observable behaviours seen during
on observations of teaching in classroom observation of a typical lesson.9
the classroom
A value-added definition The ability to produce gains on student achievement
prevailing in the SER that scores;10 taking account of a baseline measure of
focuses on student outcomes students’ prior attainment and other characteristics of
student intake, the teacher effect is identified in relation
to students’ progress measured by later attainment. Such
measures are often calculated in terms of progress over
a school year.
A narrow TER definition that The impact on students’ performance of various
focuses on the relationship classroom process factors like teaching methods,
between teacher behaviours teacher expectations, classroom organisation, and use of
and classroom practices and classroom resources. 11
student outcomes
A broader TER definition Covers pre-existing teacher characteristics, teacher
whichincludes references to competence, teacher performance/behaviour, students’
factors beyond the classroom processes learning experience, student behaviour or learning
outcomes, teacher training, external teaching context,
internal teaching context and individual student
Differentiated teacher Covers the consistency of teacher effects in terms of
effectiveness time stability, subject consistency, differentiation in
the requirements of the stakeholders (e.g. students,
colleagues, parents) and working environments
(e.g. school type, community) for instructional and
noninstructional roles.13
Total teacher effectiveness Nine components in Definition 4 plus teacher evaluation
and professional development.14
Ko (2010) 10
Little, Goe & Bell (2009) 11
Campbell et al. (2004) 12
Medley (1982: 1894-5) 13
Campbell et al. (2004) 14
Cheng (1995, 1996); Cheng & Tsui (1996)
Analyses of students’ progress or learning gains measured in achievement
tests can be used to produce value-added indicators of teacher effectiveness.15
However, these can provide only a partial source of evidence if the achievement
tests do not reflect the wider goals and outcomes of education. Nonetheless,
students’ performance levels in cognitive attainment in core areas such as
language, reading, mathematics – and increasingly in science and technology –
remain highly important for most countries and are the focus of many attempts
In many countries
at educational reform and system-wide improvement. The increased attention
a teacher’s work
paid to the results of variations within and between countries in international
has extended
achievement tests such as PIRLS, TIMMS and PISA, and the impact of relatively poor
beyond the
performance in such tests leading to concerns about economic competitiveness
instructional or
is well documented. 16 In European countries such as Germany and Denmark, as
pedagogical role in
well as the US, for example, concerns about poor country results in international
the classroom
performance have stimulated major reform initiatives to increase the quality
of teaching and education to enhance student attainment levels.17 Increased
accountability and standards-based reforms have also been linked to sustained
improvements in attainment levels in England, and these have laid an emphasis
on improving teaching (for example, through introducing inspection, reforms to
teacher education and professional development, and later through the National
Literacy and Numeracy Strategies for primary schools in the late 1990s).18
McCaffrey et al. (2003, 2004); Darling-Hammond et al. (2010) 16
Döbert, Klieme & Sroka (2004) 17
Döbert & Sroka (2004) 18
Sammons (2008)
The Perspective
There are numerous sources of information and data about teachers’ behaviour
and classroom practices that can be drawn upon to provide evidence to inform
our understanding of teacher effectiveness. These sources involve a range of data
suggest that
collection methods (e.g. classroom observation, interviews, inspection frameworks
schools account
and judgements by trained professionals, examination and test data about student
for around
achievement, policy documentation, and questionnaire surveys). There are also
5–15 per cent
different informants offering perspectives from key stakeholders in the system,
of the variation
including inspectors, school principals, heads of departments, teachers and students.
in student
Key idea: while teacher
effects are
Different sources of information can be used to provide evidence about teacher generally much
effectiveness and effective teaching practices, e.g. larger
• analyses of students’ educational outcomes including attainment in core areas like
language, mathematics and science
• professional judgements by inspectors
• observation of teachers’ classroom practices
• students’ and teachers’ views.
As noted earlier there is a tradition in TER of using measures of student attainment
(especially value-added analyses of student progress or gains in attainment) and other
non-cognitive student outcomes data (e.g. academic self-concept, behaviour and
attitudes to learning) to identify both school effects and teacher effects. Estimates
suggest that schools account for around 5–15 per cent of the variation in student
outcomes after taking account of students’ prior attainment and background, while
teacher effects are generally much larger at 20–40 per cent when progress is examined
over an academic year (more details on value-added indicators of effectiveness are
provided in the section on measurement).
Such value added studies show that teachers vary in their effectiveness in promoting
student learning as measured by their progress. They have also been used to allow
the study of which teacher behaviours and practices account for the variations in
student progress,19 thus allowing the identification of teachers whose students
make significantly better progress than similar students do in general. These allow
researchers to conduct case studies of highly effective teachers and their practices.20
Reviews of TER have produced results that identify consistent patterns of teacher
practices that promote better outcomes for students, and these provide a valuable
source of evidence on some key features of effective teaching.21 For example,
whole-class interactive teaching was found to relate to seven ‘behaviourist’ effective
teaching factors (i.e. classroom management, behaviour management, direct
teaching, varied teaching, interactive teaching, individual practice, and classroom
climate).22 We discuss these features in more detail in later sections.
Inspection evidence
School inspection serves different purposes in different countries. In some systems
In England,
it is used for quality assurance and accountability purposes. In others it is intended
the Office for
to help support teachers in developing and improving their practices. In England, the
Standards in
Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted) was introduced in 1993 to change more
Education (Ofsted)
traditional quality assurance functions of inspection (where previously inspection
was introduced in
reports were not published at the school level and inspection occurred only very
1993 to change
infrequently) to a high-profile accountability mechanism that involved regular
more traditional
inspection of all schools on a three-year cycle. This publicly identified and graded
quality assurance
school performance and involved sanctions for schools deemed to be failing,
functions of
showing serious weaknesses or needing to improve. The threat of closure was
introduced for schools deemed to be failing that did not improve sufficiently within
a short period of time (two years). Ofsted’s self-selected aim was ‘improvement
through inspection’.23 As well as publishing individual schools’ inspection reports
to inform parents, an annual report commenting on standards of attainment, the
quality of education, school leadership and of teaching and learning was published,
based on an analysis of all the inspections conducted in a year. Evidence from
inspection visits has been used to address topics of policy or practitioner interest,
including features of teaching and learning. Ofsted has also issued a number of
guidance documents on effective teaching based on inspection evidence.
Key idea:
The publication of inspection evidence can provide a major source of evidence on
effective teaching that informs practitioners about what practices are considered
to be most ‘effective’, ‘high quality’ or ‘good’ and the features of ‘unsatisfactory’
‘good’ and ‘excellent’ teaching are defined according to the professional judgements
of inspectors. Such evidence often provides examples and vignettes to illustrate
effective practice observed by inspectors.
Muijs & Reynolds (2000) 20 Muijs & Reynolds (2000); Day et al. (2006); Siraj-Blatchford et al. (2011) 21 E.g. Porter & Brophy (1988); McBer (2000); for details, see the Measurement section;
in particular, the discussion on effective teaching variables identified by Hattie’s (2009) synthesis of meta-analyses and the ‘best practice’ identified by Slavin’s (2010) meta-analysis. See also
Muijs & Reynolds’ (2000) characterisation of multidimensionality of teaching 22 Muijs & Reynolds (2000) 23 Matthews & Sammons (2004, 2005).
Inspectors can evaluate the implementation of national educational policies
(e.g. the National Curriculum) and may use regulative mechanisms (e.g. school
Inspections (e.g.
inspection and self-evaluation systems such as those found in both the UK and
in England, the
Hong Kong) to steer practitioners toward best practices. Inspections often
Netherlands and
involve classroom observation, as well as the study of samples of students’
Hong Kong) are
work, and of schools’ performance data to evaluate standards of teaching and
mainly conducted
learning in schools.
by experienced
Inspections (e.g. in England, the Netherlands and Hong Kong) are mainly inspectors over a
conducted by experienced inspectors over a number of years. These inspectors number of years
typically receive regular training and in some systems their judgements are
checked for reliability. Therefore, inspection reports and documents can provide
a valuable source of evidence on effective teaching practices and on educational
standards built on professional judgement and experience, and directly related
to the stated aims of an education system. A recent Ofsted report,24 for example,
examines the extent to which the English educational system can match the
characteristics that underpin good performance of the most successful education
systems identified in an international study.25 This stresses the importance of
maintaining consistency in the quality of teaching of individual teachers and
reducing variation within and among schools. Box 1 highlights some overall
features of good teaching and good schools based on inspection judgements.
What good teaching shows:
• Good subject knowledge is an essential prerequisite for good teaching.
• Well-structured lessons share a number of key characteristics.
• The skilful use of well-chosen questions to engage and challenge learners
and to consolidate understanding is an important feature of good teaching.
• Effective assessment for learning… is a vital ingredient in good teaching.
What good schools look like – they:
• Establish consistency in teaching and learning across the whole organisation
• Engender a culture of professional debate and developmental lesson
observation; share good practice
• Rigorously monitor and evaluate what they are doing
• Stress building good literacy, especially in a child’s early years
• In outstanding providers there is a strong focus on the needs, interests and
concerns of each individual learner.
Similarly, an earlier inspection report on primary teaching identified a number of
general teacher/ teaching features associated with high standards of achievement
in England (see Box 2).
Ofsted (2009a) 25
Barber & Mourshed (2007) 26
Ofsted (2009a)
What effective teaching looks like in primary schools:
• Good subject knowledge • Appropriate range of teacher assessment
• Good questioning skills
• Well-established classroom routines
• An emphasis upon instruction
• Effective planning
• A balance of grouping strategies As well as
• Good classroom organisation evidence on
• Clear objectives
general guidance
• Effective use of other adults in the classroom
• Good time management on features of
effective practice,
As well as evidence on general guidance on features of effective practice, subject-
advice has also
specific advice has also been produced in Ofsted reports for secondary and
been produced
primary schools.28 In addition, guidance on topics such as teaching children with
in Ofsted reports
special educational needs, raising the attainment of ethnic minority students,
for secondary and
assessment for learning, and effective behaviour management has been published.
primary schools
Case studies of outstanding schools that excel against the odds have also been
conducted and highlighted to stimulate school improvement fitting with the idea
of learning from and disseminating ‘best practice’ to improve the education system
as a whole. An example of the commentary on teaching and learning in one case
study school is shown below.29
Lessons at Bartley Green School demonstrate consistent good practice, evidence
of continuing professional development and rigorous performance management.
The rapport between teachers and students is very positive, the pace is brisk and
activities varied; and students respond promptly and confidently to opportunities
to collaborate, solve problems and present ideas to their peers. There are clear and
non-negotiable expectations about appropriate behaviour, which are calmly and
firmly insisted upon.
The publication of the Framework for inspection and use of contextualised
value-added measures provides important checks through making transparent the
basis of inspection judgements and recognising the importance of student intake
differences in shaping school performance levels.30
Annual reports, if based on appropriate national samples of schools, may be able
to reflect longitudinal changes in education standards. They can be used to help
evaluate the impact of new reforms (e.g. in England Ofsted conducted special
inspections to evaluate the use of the National Strategies in primary schools, to
identify the features of effective teaching in challenging (disadvantaged) contexts,
to identify good practice in assessment for learning and to study the impact of
school improvement initiatives such as Academies).31
Ofsted (1994) 28
Ofsted (2002) 29
Ofsted (2009b: 19) 30
Teddlie & Reynolds (2000); Sammons (2007) 31
Matthews & Sammons (2004)
An Ofsted report on good secondary school teaching in subject departments
suggested a number of questions for teachers that could be used as the starting
points for teacher self-evaluation and departmental or whole-school review (see
Box 3).32
As a subject teacher, do I:
• have a detailed, up-to-date knowledge of the subject(s) I teach?
• maintain my enthusiasm for the subject by being a learner as well as a teacher,
both within the classroom and beyond it, and can I use that subject enthusiasm to
motivate and inspire pupils?
• regularly offer to my pupils models of good performance in all aspects of the
subject, to clarify my expectations and raise their aspirations?
• plan lessons and units of work to ensure continuity in learning and steady
progress for pupils in the required knowledge, skills and understanding by building
new work onto what has gone before and balancing new material or ideas with
• plan lessons that are varied, starting in ways that engage pupils’ interest, intellect
or creativity and using a range of groupings, activities and appropriate resources
to maintain that interest?
• make clear the intended learning in my lessons? Do I match it to pupils’ prior
attainment and assessed aptitude, and both communicate these intentions to
pupils and review with them the extent of their learning?
• wherever feasible, look for opportunities for pupils to undertake investigations,
solve problems or analyse and evaluate ideas? Do I encourage pupils to be
exploratory and critical, rather than passive recipients of information?
• use questioning skilfully to probe and extend pupils’ thinking in ways well
matched to their level of attainment in the subject?
• give pupils sufficient time for reflection, thought and even puzzlement?
• recognise ‘practical’ work as integral to learning for pupils of all abilities, but
ensure that it is linked to analysis and evaluation?
• mark and assess pupils’ work as helpfully as is practicable, offering informative
feedback? Do I use criteria, marks or grades that are understood by pupils? Do I
provide a clear indication of what has been done well and where improvement
is needed?
Ofsted (2002) 33
Ofsted (2002: 73-4)
Increasing emphasis has been given to encouraging school self-evaluation and
review in recent inspection publications in England. Although inspection can
provide an authoritative source of evidence on good practice, there have been
emphasis has
many criticisms of the high-stakes accountability system used in England, and
been given to
arguments that this tends to reduce teachers’ freedom to be creative and so may
encouraging school
damage their professional autonomy. Inspection is also claimed to have added to
teachers’ and schools’ workload, increased stress on teachers and decreased job
and review in
satisfaction. Having said this, there is much evidence that inspection has helped to
recent inspection
raise educational standards in combination with other education reforms.34
publications in
Since 1997, inspection evidence in Hong Kong has been checked against a set of England
performance indicators, among which three have direct relevance to teaching.
Interestingly, Hong Kong has chosen not to publish its individual school inspection
reports, in contrast to the high-profile approach adopted in England. In Hong
Kong these performance indicators and their associated reflective questions have
provided guidelines for teachers and schools for self-evaluations (see Table 3).35
These performance indicators are positioned under a set of rationales specifying
what a teacher should do to achieve effective teaching (see Box 4). However, since
there is no official benchmark or standard set for primary schools in Hong Kong,
and there is no public channel for analysing or disseminating inspection reports,
it is not clear to what extent Hong Kong teachers can draw on inspection data for
improving their practices.
Performance indicators Reflective questions for teachers
Teaching organisation How do teachers design their teaching content and
adopt teaching strategies according to their teaching
objectives and students’ abilities?
Teaching process Are teachers’ communication skills effective in
promoting student learning?
Feedback and follow-up Are teachers able to provide appropriate feedback to
students to help them improve?
Gray (2000); Matthews & Sammons (2005); Sammons (2008) 35
Quality Assurance Division, Education Bureau (2008: 19)
• Teachers should adopt a student-centred approach and lucid teaching objectives,
appropriate teaching strategies and resources to promote class interaction and
help students to construct knowledge.
• Teaching should stimulate thinking, develop students’ potential and foster their
learning ability. Appropriate attitudes and values are also fostered in the process.
• Teachers should cater for the needs of different learners, offer suitable feedback
and, at the same time, enhance their confidence and interest in learning.
• Teachers should extend student learning through providing life-wide learning
• Schools should strive for student autonomy in the learning process by encouraging
them to actively engage in sharing, collaboration and exploration, thus enabling
them to enjoy learning, enhance their effectiveness in communication and develop
their creativity and sense of commitment.
Teachers’ perceptions
Teachers’ perceptions of what constitutes high quality or effective teaching are often
collected in surveys, instruction logs,37 and interviews.38 Such logs and their validity
and reliability have been questioned because studies tended to fail to pinpoint the
relative significance of specific practices over time.39 It seems that the teachers and
researchers do not consistently interpret the key terms and in the same way. 40
As well as finding
As well as finding out what factors teachers think constitute effective teaching out what factors
practices, it is also of interest to establish how teachers perceive their own teachers think
effectiveness and whether this changes over time. Do more experienced teachers constitute
perceive that their own effectiveness improves over the course of their career? What effective teaching
factors influence their perceptions of their effectiveness? practices, it is
A more global perception as a measure of teachers’ perceived effectiveness (i.e. self- also of interest
perception of teachers of their own practice) and a measure of relative effectiveness to establish
based on value-added analyses of pupil progress were used to study teacher how teachers
effectiveness in a study of ‘Variations in teachers’ lives and work and their effects on perceive their
pupils (VITAE)’. 41 This VITAE research found that teachers’ effectiveness is not simply own effectiveness
a consequence of age or experience. Indeed, they identified mid-career teachers as and whether this
tending to show greater effectiveness with some decline for teachers who had been changes over time
in post for longer periods. Some other cross-sectional studies at different levels
of education also suggest that teaching effectiveness eventually tends to decline
with longer experience/older age. Instead, it was found that teacher effectiveness is
influenced by variations in their work, lives and identities that shape their sense of
professional identity in different professional life phases. In turn, teachers’ sense of
professional identity influences their relative commitment and resilience as well as
their capacities to manage these variations to sustain their teaching effectiveness.
Quality Assurance Division, Education Bureau (2008: 6) 37 However, Camburn & Barnes (2004) found that teacher and researcher reports did not always correspond, raising the question of
validity as well as differences in values, understanding, interpretation and evaluation 38 E.g. Ball & Rowan (2004) and Day et al. (2008) use interviews to help explain and verify findings from
other measures 39 Little, Goe & Bell (2009) 40 Ball & Rowan (2004), Blank, Porter & Smithson (2001), Mullens (1995) 41 Day et al. (2007, 2008)
These findings are important in two ways. First, they suggest that studies that simply
control for age and teaching experience would miss important roles of personal,
situated and contextual factors that help to shape teachers’ professional identities
and their capacities to manage variations and sustain their effectiveness over the
course of their teaching careers. Second, the results suggest that we should not view
teacher effectiveness as an isolated characteristic of the teacher, but a consequence Research
of many interacting factors. This research suggests that a teacher may be more or by suggests that
contrast less effective in different circumstances and at different times, and thus there a teacher may
is a need to examine the factors that affect teachers’ observed teaching behaviours, be more or
their overall teaching effectiveness, and their variation and stability over time. 42 Of by contrast
particular interest is research that helps us to understand what factors help teachers less effective
to change and improve their classroom practice in line with behaviours and processes in different
that the literature has shown tend to characterise effective teaching. The VITAE circumstances
research suggests that school leadership, professional development and support from and at different
colleagues can be important in sustaining teachers’ professional identities, their job times
satisfaction, commitment to teaching, resilience and perceived effectiveness.
The literature discussed so far largely reflects Western perspectives of what
constitutes teacher effectiveness. It is appropriate to address non-Western cultural
impacts on the conceptualisations of teacher effectiveness. In a study based on
interviews used to elicit Chinese teachers’ conceptions of teaching (Table 4),43
the emphases on the role of the teacher and exam preparation are found to be
strong, respectively reflecting the traditional role model figure of the teacher and
the examination-oriented education system in the East. The emphases on attitude
promotion and conduct guidance are also deeply rooted in the Confucian philosophy.
Further studies in different cultural contexts are needed to examine variations in
teachers’ views and understanding of what it means to be an effective teacher and
how far the current educational knowledge base on effective teaching practices is
generalisable in different contexts. A major comparative study involving more than 19
countries has been used to further understanding of effective classroom practices and
will be discussed in a later section. 44
Learning and learner Nature of teaching Role of teacher Expected outcomes Teaching content Methods of teaching
Knowledge Acquiring knowledge Delivering Deliverer and Accumulation of Follows the One-way lecturing
delivery and skills; passive knowledge resource provider knowledge and textbook closely plus demonstration
receivers and skills skills
Exam Achieving exam Preparing for Trainer and High exam Conducted by the Classroom drilling,
preparation requirements, examinations; director achievement ‘baton of exams’ effective for
achievers, competitive drilling students preparing for exams
Ability Internal construction; Facilitating Guide, leader, Developing Meets the needs A variety of methods,
development explorers, capable, learning and facilitator understanding and of students and emphasises activities
flexible and creative ability, knowing matches students’ and interactions
how to learn level
Attitude Establishing good Promoting and Model of good Active and Contained implicitly Interactive and
promotion attitude fostering good learner with independent in in teachers’ interesting; indirect
attitude good attitude learning performance manner
Conduct Self-improvement Facilitating and Role model of Qualified persons Related materials, Friendly and
guidance guiding good good conduct, with good conduct contained implicitly in interactive; indirect
conduct friend of students teachers’ behaviours manner
For stability of teacher effectiveness over years see Marsh (2007a and b); Marsh & Hocevar (1991b); Rosenshine (1970) 43
Gao & Watkins (2001) 44
Teddlie et al. (2006)
Adapted from Gao & Watkins (2002: 64)
Students’ perceptions
Although students are the major stakeholders, some authors have expressed
scepticism about the appropriateness of using student ratings as a source of
evidence about teachers’ classroom practice. Such authors stress students’
general lack of knowledge about the full context of teaching and raise concerns
that students’ ratings of individuals may be unduly affected by students’ views
of teachers’ personalities or by students’ own grades. However, the validity and
reliability of using students’ course evaluations to understand teacher effectiveness
has been established in a number of studies in various countries,46 based on
various measures. 47 For example, in Students’ Evaluation of Education Quality
(SEEQ), there are items measuring the instructor’s enthusiasm (Instructor was
enthusiastic about teaching the course), organisation (Course materials were well
prepared and carefully explained), group interaction (Students were encouraged to
participate in class discussions), or individual rapports (Instructor had a genuine
interest in individual students). These items closely match items found in other
measures used to study different dimensions of teaching in research mentioned
in the Measurement challenge section. However, it is uncommon for surveys
of students’ views to focus only on instruction in the classroom, they may also
include what the teacher/instructor does outside the classroom or after the
lectures (e.g. items such as: Feedback on examinations/graded materials was
valuable; or: Required readings/texts were valuable). 48
Key question:
How can the students’ perspectives on effective teaching be incorporated into the
work of schools and teachers in your educational context?
Research has indicated those students’ evaluations of university teachers can
identify clear dimensions related to effectiveness of teaching49 and stability over
years, 50 and were more reliable than ratings given by principals and teachers
Examples of some selected questionnaire items used in the form of a 5-point rating
scale from ‘Strongly agree’ to ‘Strongly disagree’ are shown below from a survey of
primary students aged 10–11 years in England. These focus on features of teaching
and behaviour management.52
• My teacher makes lessons interesting.
• My teacher is pleased when we work hard.
• We do a lot of different things in our lessons.
• My teacher tells us when we’ve done good work.
• My teacher helps me with my work when I ask for help.
Baker (1986); Follman (1992, 1995); Kyriakides (2005); Marsh (1984, 1987); Patrick & Smart (1998); Worrell & Kuterbach (2001); Wilkerson et al. (2000). It is found to enhance teaching quality
when it is used with expert consultation (Murray, 1997). Cf. Shirbagi (2007) in an Iran context 47 E.g. Students’ Evaluation of Education Quality (SEEQ) by Marsh (1982); Teacher Evaluation
Questionnaire by University of Queensland Tertiary Education Institute (Moses, 1986); Course Experience Questionnaire by Ramsden (1991) 48 Marsh (1982) and its application at the University
of Saskatchewan, Canada 49 Marsh (1984, 2007b); Marsh & Bailey (1993); Marsh & Cheng (2008); Marsh & Hocevar (1991a) 50 Marsh & Hocevar (1991b); Marsh (2007a) 51 Wilkerson et al. (2000)
Sammons et al. (2008)
• I often find the work too easy in class.
• My teacher gets the class to behave well.
• My teacher is always there at the start of lessons.
In some countries
• My teacher is not pleased if pupils are late for lessons or school.
one of the duties
• My teacher tells us off when we make mistakes with our work. of the principal
Other ways of listening to the student ‘voice’ and encouraging active engagement is to monitor the
of students in the educational process are becoming popular in various education quality of teaching
systems including small-group interviews with students, students engaging in their and learning in
own action research in schools, students giving teachers feedback on their lessons their schools and
and student involvement in teacher selection interviews. this can involve
Principals’ perceptions
In some countries one of the duties of the principal is to monitor the quality of
teaching and learning in their schools and this can involve conducting classroom
observations – either themselves or via heads of department or others in the
senior leadership team. However, it can be argued that principals’ ratings of
teacher behaviours may be biased because they are especially susceptible to
differences in the power relations between teachers and principals. Studies in the
US found significant district variations.53 Mixed results were obtained in studies
linking subjective principal ratings of teachers and value-added scores of student
achievement. 54 For teacher evaluation purposes, a peer teacher or content expert
like the subject department head or a Local Authority adviser or inspector may be
in a better position than the principal to make informed judgements,55 indicating
that expert knowledge of the person rating may be crucial. In the section on
Observation later in the review (see ‘The Measurement challenge’), more details
are given on the use of different instruments and how teacher observation may be
used to enhance classroom practice.
Brandt et al. (2007); Heneman et al. (2006) 54
Harris & Sass (2009); Jacob & Lefgren (2005, 2008); Medley & Coker (1987); Wilkerson et al. (2000) 55
Stodolsky (1990); Yon, Burnap & Kohut (2002)
The Characterisation
The ultimate aim of characterising effective teaching practices involves identifying the
generic features and dimensions of effective teaching, measuring the relative impacts of
teacher effects on students’ learning outcomes, and establishing the relative influence of
contextual conditions that may influence teacher effectiveness. The first task begins with
summarising results of research that sought to provide profiles of effective teachers and
effective teaching.
General profiles of effective teachers and effective teaching
A large number of reviews have synthesised research findings on effective teacher
behaviours.56 These reviews indicate some consensus in TER about broad features of what
an effective teacher would look like. Effective teachers have been found to be ‘semi-
autonomous professionals’ who are thoughtful and reflective about their practice (see Box 5).
Effective teachers:
• are clear about instructional goals
• are knowledgeable about curriculum content and the strategies for teaching it
• communicate to their students what is expected of them – and why
• make expert use of existing instructional materials in order to devote more time to practices
that enrich and clarify the content
• are knowledgeable about their students, adapting instruction to their needs and anticipating
misconceptions in their existing knowledge
• teach students meta-cognitive strategies and give them opportunities to master them
• address higher- as well as lower-level cognitive objectives
• monitor students’ understanding by offering regular appropriate feedback
• integrate their instruction with that in other subject areas
• accept responsibility for student outcomes.
For example, Bloom (1976); Brophy & Good (1986); Gage (1978); Glass (1977); Good, Biddle & Brophy (1983); Light & Smith (1971); Rosenshine (1971); Walberg (1986); Wittrock (1986)
Porter & Brophy (1988: 75)
• Inconsistent approaches to the curriculum and teaching
• Inconsistent expectations for different learners that are lower for disadvantaged
students from low SES families
• An emphasis on supervising and communicating about routines
• Low levels of teacher-student interactions
• Low levels of student involvement in their work
• Student perceptions of their teachers as not caring, unhelpful, under-appreciative
of the importance of learning and their work
• More frequent use of negative criticism and feedback.
In contrast, ineffective classroom practices show different characteristics, outlined
in Box 6.
A comparison of teaching characteristics in effective primary schools in England59
and secondary schools in the US60 in Table 5 reveals some similarities of these
teaching behaviours and the possibility of categorising them. The fine-grained
behaviours of effective teachers in most reviews of teacher profiles seem to
be widely applicable, as they are evident in research conducted in a number of
different countries. 61
Aspect Effective teaching in primary Effective teaching in secondary
Structuring Teacher is responsible for ordering activities during the Emphasises academic goals; makes [goals] explicit and expect
day for pupils, i.e. structured teaching pupils to be able to master the curriculum; carefully organises
and sequences the curriculum
Delivery Spends greater amount of time communicating with Clearly explains and illustrates what pupils are to learn
pupils about the content of their work, but not routine
Management Keeps a lower level of noise and movement in pupils
Interaction Maintains high levels of interaction
with the whole class
Focus Keeps a fairly narrow focus within individual sessions Corrects mistakes and allow pupils to use a skill until it is
over-learned and automatic; gives pupils ample opportunity
to practise
Student Maintains high levels of pupil involvement in tasks
involvement appropriate for their levels of ability
Lets pupils have some responsibility for their work and Reviews work regularly and holds pupils accountable for
independence in these sessions their work
Emotive and cognitive Has high levels of praise and encouragement Gives prompts and feedback to ensure success
Keeps a positive atmosphere in the classroom
Stoll & Fink (1994) 59
Mortimore et al. (1988: 227-31) 60
Doyle (1987: 95) 61
See Creemers et al. (2002)
In addition to the above, studies also show that socio-economically disadvantaged
students benefited more when the teaching is structured and promotes cognitive
Studies also
attainment in the basic skills. 62 We will discuss this aspect further in the next
show that socio-
section. In a review on educational effectiveness and equity, the roles of
communication, assessment and feedback are also highlighted. 63 While assessment
and feedback can be both descriptive and evaluative, they can enhance the
students benefited
development of metacognition in the student through the teacher’s feedback to
more when
students on ways to improve their learning outcomes. The review of assessment for
the teaching
learning provides further details on these aspects. 64
is structured
Various studies of effective teachers and effective teaching in Hong Kong65 and promotes
have shown many similarities such as in classroom management and classroom cognitive
climate 66 with the Western studies discussed above, but also indicated contrasting attainment in the
characteristics. For example, the effective teacher is seen as a figure of authority, basic skills
morality and benevolence, conforming to the Confucian concept of ‘ren’67 and the
social hierarchy of teachers in Chinese society. 68 It is also noted that the features
of effective teaching in Hong Kong address the learning processes understood to
be important in the cultural context of Chinese learners in their focus on providing
many structured tasks, drills and memorisation of materials before deep learning is
addressed; plus a very strong priority is given to promoting students’ attainment in
external examinations and tests by teachers in the Chinese culture context. 69
Key question:
How does cultural context influence interpretations of what makes an effective
teacher in my system?
Characterisation and categorisation of effective teaching
Going beyond profiling effective teachers, some researchers have attempted
to systematically categorise different teaching behaviours and analyse the links
between these categories and student achievement. Therefore, in addition to
the extensive research on general teaching behaviour, much has been written
about specific effective teaching skills,70 different teaching styles,71 and different
models of teaching, which specify particular types of learning environment and
approaches to teaching.72 These studies have shown that variations in teaching
behaviours contribute much to teachers’ effectiveness in the classroom. In
addition, they reveal a high degree of consensus concerning the generic features
of effective teaching. 73
Such characterisations or classifications reveal that how teaching behaviours are
grouped may be subject to philosophical orientations. The most notable example
is the debate that contrasts the relative effectiveness of the teacher-directed (or
explicit) instruction and student-centred constructivist approaches to teaching.
Scheerens (1992); Muijs & Reynolds (2005) 63 Sammons (2007) 64 Flórez & Sammons (2013) 65 Bailey et al. (1992); Cheung, Cheng & Pang (2008); Jin & Cortazzi (1998); Pratt et al. (1999)
Cheung, Cheng & Pang (2008) 67 Jin & Cortazzi (1998) 68 Pratt et al. (1999) 69 Pratt et al. (1999) 70 E.g. Clark & Peterson (1986); Kyriacou (2007); Muijs & Reynolds (2005); Philpott (2009),
Wragg (1984) 71 E.g. Bennett (1976); Galton, Simon & Croll (1980); Opdenakke & Van Damme (2006) 72 E.g. informational processing models, behavioural systems family models, personal
family models; see Joyce, Weil & Calhoun (2005); Joyce, Calhoun & Hopkins (2008) 73 E.g. Bennett (1988), Bickel & Bickel (1986); Good & Brophy (1999); Harris (1998); Mortimore et al. (1988);
Rosenshine (1983); Walberg (1986, 1990); Wang & Walberg (1991)
The philosophy of constructivism has been given a high priority in the content
of teacher education courses and school systems in many Western countries.
The philosophy
Constructivist approaches to teaching literacy have been given various names
of constructivism
including whole language teaching, anchored instruction, situated learning,
has been given
discovery learning, task-based learning and scaffolding, problem-based learning,
a high priority
and issue-based learning.74 Constructivism has been linked to new approaches
in the content of
such as assessment for learning (AfL), although providing clear and constructive
teacher education
feedback on how to improve work can also be seen as an important feature of
courses and school
an alternative approach, termed Direct Instruction. A number of reviews provide
systems in many
evidence for the stronger positive effects of teacher-directed approaches (i.e.
Western countries
direct instruction) in promoting student learning attainment gains especially for
younger ages and more disadvantaged groups of students.75
Key idea:
Direct teaching and good interaction are as important in group work and paired
work as they are in whole class work but organising students as a whole class for a
significant proportion of a lesson helps to maximise their contact with the teacher
so every student benefits from the teaching and interaction for sustained periods
of time.
In England the National Literacy and National Numeracy Strategies adopted in
primary schools were inspired by reviews of TER and the Direct Instruction model.
They emphasised the importance of teachers spending as much time as possible
in direct teaching and questioning of the whole class, a group of students or
individuals. This led to a focus on interactive whole class teaching for at least some
part of daily numeracy and literacy lessons especially at the beginning and ends
of the lessons. An interactive whole class ‘plenary’ session was seen as particularly
important for reviewing, reflecting, consolidating teaching points and representing
work covered in the lesson to check all students’ understanding.76 Features
regarded as important in Direct Instruction, particularly as part of interactive
teaching include: Directing learning (including sharing learning goals/objectives
with students), Instructing, Demonstrating, Explaining and illustrating, Questioning
and discussing, Consolidating, Evaluating students’ responses, and Summarising
and reviewing learning particularly in closing a lesson.
Research on Direct Instruction indicates that learning can be greatly accelerated
if instructional presentations are clear, minimise misinterpretations and facilitate
generalisations. The principles upon which such approaches are based include:
• All children can learn, regardless of their intrinsic and context characteristics.
• The teaching of basic skills and their application in higher-order skills is essential
to intelligent behaviour and should be the main focus of any instructional
programme, and certainly prior to student-directed learning activities.
• Instruction with students experiencing learning difficulties must be highly
structured and permit large amounts of practice.77
Rowe (2006) 75
Galton et al. (1980); Mortimore et al. (1988); Muijs & Reynolds (2000); Rowe (2006) 76
Muijs & Reynolds (2000) 77
Rowe (2006: 5)
Nonetheless, it is argued that the Constructivist and Direct Instruction approaches
can both be used and do not have to be seen as necessarily in conflict. Both can
have value depending on the purposes of the lesson and the characteristics and
prior skills of the learner. The choice and balance depends on the goals of the
teacher for a particular lesson and group of students:
The relative utility of direct instruction and constructivist approaches to
teaching and learning are neither mutually exclusive nor independent. Both
approaches have merit in their own right, provided that students have the
basic knowledge and skills (best provided initially by direct instruction) before
engagement in ‘rich’ constructivist learning activities. The problem arises when
constructivist learning activities precede explicit teaching, or replace it, with
the assumption that students have adequate knowledge and skills to efficiently
and effectively engage with constructivist learning activities designed to
generate new learning. 78
Key questions:
• How well do the features of Direct Instruction approaches and interactive whole
class teaching fit with current teacher practices in my system?
• What is the appropriate balance between Constructivist and Direct Instruction /
interactive whole class teaching?
• What are the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches?
The primacy of teacher effects and the relative effectiveness The debate on
of teacher variables the impacts of
As early traditional TER predominantly focused on teacher effects on student
factors on learning
learning outcomes, other contextual variables in the school, the community, and
outcomes and
education system tended to be ignored.79 The debate on the impacts of socio-
the concerns on
economic factors on learning outcomes and the concerns on equity led to the
equity led to the
rise of SER (school effectiveness research).80 As teachers work in schools, schools
rise of SER (school
can influence teacher effectiveness through different effectiveness-enhancing
conditions, but may also have direct impacts on pupil outcomes, as depicted in
Figure 1, following.
Rowe (2006: 14) 79
For a historical account, see Campbell et al. (2004) 80
Sammons (2007) 81
Adapted from Scheerens & Bosker (1997:147)