Weather and Climate

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This ppt includes weather and climate for Elementary Kids. Weather refers to short-term atmospheric conditions while climate is the weather of a specific region averaged over a long period of time.
1. Intro to Weather Clip
2. Weather by Brainpop
1) What cycle is the basis
of our weather?
2) What causes
precipitation to occur?
3) Where do storms
usually occur?
3.  Temporary behavior of
atmosphere (what’s going on at
any certain time)
 Small geographic area
 Can change rapidly
4. --The study of weather is
--Someone who studies weather is
called a meteorologist
5.  Long-term behavior of
atmosphere (100+ years)
 Large geographic area
 Very slow to change
90o -60o latitude
Cool summers, cold year-
60o-30o latitude
True Seasons
Variety of climate patterns
Moderate precipitation
30o - equator
No winter, warm year-round
High temp, rainfall, humidity
9. Climate Types by Brainpop
1.What is climate?
2.Where are tropical
climates most likely to
3.What does “arid”
10. What Factors Affect
Weather & Climate?
1. The Sun
2. The Water Cycle
3. The Atmosphere
4. The Ocean
11. How Does the Sun
Affect Weather?
It warms the atmosphere &
It creates climate zones
It keeps the water cycle
It affects weather patterns
12. The Water
All the water on the planet is
recycled in this manner!
13. Parts of the Cycle
Evaporation going
from a liquid to a gas
(gains energy from the sun)
14. Parts of the Cycle
*Transpiration—evaporation of
water from/out of plants. Locate
this on the diagram!
15. Parts of the Cycle
Condensation going from a
gas to a liquid (cools or loses energy)
 When this happens in the
atmosphere, CLOUDS form.
16. Clouds by
17. Parts of the Cycle
Precipitation—when water falls
out the atmosphere. Forms when
the water droplets in clouds
become too heavy to stay up.
18.  Liquid water = rain
Rain Clip
Frozen water =
snow or sleet or hail
19. The Water Cycle
Water Cycle by
20. Water Cycle Advanced by
21. The Water Cycle by Brainpop
1) What process must
happen for clouds to
2) What is “collection”?
3) Name one way to
conserve water.
22. How does the
atmosphere affect
The atmosphere is a mixture of gases
that surrounds the Earth
Has five different layers; each has
different properties
We’ll label them in just a minute…
Air Temperature and Pressure change
with altitude
Weather occurs in the layer closest to
Earth (troposphere)
23. Write in the
Ozone layer
27. Earth’s Atmsophere by Brainpop
1. What is ozone?
2. What layer of the
atmosphere does weather
occur in?
3. What 2 gases compose
the most of Earth’s
28. Air Masses
= body of air with a certain
temperature and
moisture level
Can be warm or cold
Can contain a lot of moisture
or not a lot of moisture
29. = places where air
masses meet
4 Types: Warm,
Cold, Occluded,
Each kind can
bring different
kinds of weather
30. Occluded Front: Stationary Front:
32. Science Saurus 221/222
& Reading a Weather
Map Worksheet
33. How does Air
Pressure affect
How much the earth’s atmosphere is
pressing down on us
Measured with a BAROMETER
If it CHANGES, then new weather is on the
Falling Air Pressure = stormy weather coming
Rising Air Pressure = fair weather coming
Steady Air Pressure = no change is coming
34. Pressure Systems
35. Winds = created from
differences in air pressure
Moves from areas of HIGH to LOW
Greater the difference in pressure,
the FASTER the wind blows
Measured with wind vanes and
anemometers or you can estimate
with the Beaufort Wind Scale
ScienceSaurus 224/225
36. Beaufort Wind
37. Global Winds
Thousands of kilometers long;
can cause weather to move
in different directions
Jet stream, prevailing
westerlies, doldrums, horse
latitudes, trade winds
Big Winds Blowin’ Worksheet &
Big Winds Blowin’ Worksheet &
Science Saurus Section 217
38. Global Winds
Caused by the temperature
difference in different regions
Hot Tropical Regions—causes
air to rise
Cold polar Regions—causes air
to sink
39. Global Winds
Also affected by Earth’s Spin
Coriolis Effect = causes

winds to curve to the right in
the N. Hemisphere; to the left
in the S. Hemisphere
40. Big Winds Blowin’ Worksheet
41. Winds by Brainpop
1. What does warm air
2. What do you call
winds that blow all the
time in the same part of
the world?
3. What are jet streams?
42. Relative Humidity
 Measure of the amount of
moisture in the air
compared to what the air
could hold
 How “full” of water the air is
 Expressed as %
 100% relative humidity =
Relative Humidity Testair
43. Relative Humidity
Controlled by temperature
1. Warm air holds more moisture
than cool air (more space for water
vapor between air molecules)
2. As air warms,
warms relative humidity
3. As air cools,
cools relative humidity
44. Dew Point
 =Temperature at which the air is
saturated (100% relative humidity)
Several events can occur when the
dew point temp. is reached:
1. If dew point temp. is above
a. water vapor condenses as liquid
b. dew will form on surfaces
45. Dew Point
c. cloud droplets will form in air
2. If dew point temp. is below
a. water vapor condenses as a solid
b. frost on surfaces
c. snow (or hail) in the air
46. Humidity by Brainpop
1. What single factor
controls humidity?
2. What temperature air
can hold the most water
3. What causes water to
47.  Caused by sunshine on raindrops
 White light (all colors) is refracted
(bent) into colors as it enters and exits
the drop
 To see a rainbow you must have the
sun behind you and raindrops in the air
 Diagram:
48. Rainbow by
49. How does the Ocean
affect weather?
Ocean currents affect the temperature of
the land they pass by
Cold ocean currents = cooling effect
Warm ocean currents = warming effect
Temperature changes affect pressure –
which then creates WINDS
Winds blow this cooling or warming effect
over the land
51. Science Saurus Sections 203-204-205-206
52. Advanced Weather by
Violent Weather
54. Requires a mature cumulonimbus
a. Sudden reversal of wind direction
b. Noticeable increase in wind speed
c. Sudden drop in temperature
55. Thunderstorms
Possible weather:
a. heavy rains (flash floods)
b. lightning (forest fires)
c. thunder (frightens animals)
d. hail (crop damage)
e. tornadoes
f. strong, gusty winds
Thunderstorm by
56. Safety Rules
 Stay indoors
 Prepare for lightning, strong
 Listen on radio/TV for tornado
 Thunderstorms don’t last long
57. Cumulonimbus cloud becomes
electrically charged and ground
below has opposite charge
59. Lightning stroke: flow of current thru
air (a poor conductor) from the – to
the +
Lightning can flow from cloud to
ground, cloud to cloud,
cloud and from
ground to cloud
Bright light is caused by glowing air
molecules heated by the current
Lightning follows the path of least
resistance (easiest way to positive)
Lightning rod offers lightning an easy,
safe path to the ground (+)
60. Thunder is the shock wave caused by the
explosive expansion of heated air
Sound travels @ about 1100 ft/sec in
5,280 ft in one mile
Distance from you to lightning =
number of seconds between seeing the
flash and hearing the thunder divided by 5.
(5,280 ft / 1100 ft/sec = 5 seconds)
61. Types of Lightning
Streak or bolt
a. Single or branched lines of light
b. Common in Puget Sound area
62. a. shapeless flash over wide area
b. is cloud-to-cloud bolt hidden by
the clouds
c. common in Puget Sound area
63. Other types of lightning
a. heat, ribbon, beaded (types of
b. ball (only other shape lightning
can have)
64. Safety rules for lightning
 Stay indoors
 Stay away from anything that conducts
electricity (stove, sink, telephone, TV)
 Get out of the water and off of small boats
 Stay away from open doors, windows,
 Stay in your car (very safe place to be)
 Don’t stand under lone trees or in open
 Avoid hilltops
 If your hair stands on end, or your skin
tingles, drop to the ground but try to keep
as little contact with the ground as possible
65. Lightning Strikes
(17 minutes)
Stories of people hit by
66. Tornado (a.k.a twister,
 Counterclockwise column of rotating air
extending from cumulonimbus cloud
 Per square foot, is the most destructive
atmospheric event
 Rated by wind speed (F1 to F5)
 “Tornado season” = April, May, June
 Tornadoes that form over water are
called “waterspouts”
67. Behavior of a tornado is unpredictable
Typical tornado will:
1. Occur between 3-7 pm
2. Travel 4 miles
3. Be 300-400 m wide
4. Travel 25-40 mi/hour
5. Have wind speeds up to 300 mi/hr
6. Produce extremely low pressure
7. Be dark due to debris picked up
Tornado by Brainpop
68. Safety Rules
 Rule #1: Take immediate action!
 Move away from tornado’s path
Tornado’s path
Move away at a right angle
69. Lie flat in nearest ditch, etc.
At home
a. open windows, doors
b. seek shelter in basement or
under heavy table in middle of
On the trail of a tornado
70. Tropical Cyclone
1. Atlantic: hurricane
2. SE Asia, Japan: typhoon
3. Australia: willy-willy
4. Indian Ocean: cyclone
71. Tropical Cyclone
Rated by wind speed (category 1 to
Starts and grows over warm ocean
Composed of bands of
thunderstorms spiraling
counterclockwise around a low
pressure center
72.  Several hundred miles wide
 Last many days (even weeks)
 Winds from 74-200 mi/hr
 Contains an “eye” Hurricances by
a. Small region of low pressure
b. Surrounded by highest winds
c. Calm, peaceful, sunny weather
d. Last for about 1 hour as hurricane
passes by
73. Safety Rules
 Prepare for high winds
 Prepare for flooding (greatest
source of damage)
a. Up to 20 in. of rain
b. Flooding by coastal water
 3. Prepare for thunderstorms
 4. Have on hand stored food,
water, blankets, candles,
matches, radio, etc.
 Hurricanes Clip
5. Seek shelter