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A triangle has three sides, angles, and vertices respectively. The total of all internal angles of a triangle is always equal to 180 degrees.

1.
Triangles

Triangle

A triangle is a closed figure in a plane consisting of three

segments called sides. Any two sides intersect in

exactly one point called a vertex.

A triangle is named using the capital letters assigned to its vertices in a clockwise or

counterclockwise direction. For example, the triangle below can be named triangle ABC in a

counterclockwise direction starting with the vertex A.

a. What are other names for triangle ABC?

A triangle can be classified according to its sides, angles, or a combination of both. If a triangle

has three congruent sides, it is called an equilateral triangle as shown below.

A triangle with at least two sides congruent is called an isosceles triangle as shown below.

b. Are all equilateral triangles isosceles? Why or why not?

c. Are some isosceles triangles equilateral? Explain.

Answers to questions a-c:

a. Triangle (∆) ACB, ∆BAC, ∆BCA, ∆CAB, ∆CBA

Triangle

A triangle is a closed figure in a plane consisting of three

segments called sides. Any two sides intersect in

exactly one point called a vertex.

A triangle is named using the capital letters assigned to its vertices in a clockwise or

counterclockwise direction. For example, the triangle below can be named triangle ABC in a

counterclockwise direction starting with the vertex A.

a. What are other names for triangle ABC?

A triangle can be classified according to its sides, angles, or a combination of both. If a triangle

has three congruent sides, it is called an equilateral triangle as shown below.

A triangle with at least two sides congruent is called an isosceles triangle as shown below.

b. Are all equilateral triangles isosceles? Why or why not?

c. Are some isosceles triangles equilateral? Explain.

Answers to questions a-c:

a. Triangle (∆) ACB, ∆BAC, ∆BCA, ∆CAB, ∆CBA

2.
b. All equilateral triangles are also isosceles triangles since every equilateral triangle has

at least two of its sides congruent.

c. Some isosceles triangles can be equilateral if all three sides are congruent.

A triangle with no two of its sides congruent is called a scalene triangle and is shown below.

Classification of Triangles by Sides

Equilateral triangle: a triangle with three

congruent sides

Isosceles triangle: a triangle with at least two

sides congruent

Scalene triangle: a triangle with no two sides

congruent

Another way to classify triangles is according to their angles. A triangle with three acute angles

can be classified as an acute triangle.

A triangle with one obtuse angle can be classified as obtuse triangle.

at least two of its sides congruent.

c. Some isosceles triangles can be equilateral if all three sides are congruent.

A triangle with no two of its sides congruent is called a scalene triangle and is shown below.

Classification of Triangles by Sides

Equilateral triangle: a triangle with three

congruent sides

Isosceles triangle: a triangle with at least two

sides congruent

Scalene triangle: a triangle with no two sides

congruent

Another way to classify triangles is according to their angles. A triangle with three acute angles

can be classified as an acute triangle.

A triangle with one obtuse angle can be classified as obtuse triangle.

3.
A right triangle is a triangle with one right angle.

Segments PQ and RP are called the legs of the right triangle and segment RQ is called the

hypotenuse. The legs form the right angle ∠ RPQ. The side opposite the right angle is

hypotenuse RQ.

Classification of Triangles by Angles

Acute triangle: a triangle with three acute angles

Obtuse triangle: a triangle with one obtuse angle

Right triangle: a triangle with one right angle

True or False: Give a reason or counterexample to justify your response.

1. An equilateral triangle is always acute.

2. An obtuse triangle can also be isosceles.

3. The acute angles of a right triangle are complementary.

4. Use the figure below and find the value of x for each of the following.

Segments PQ and RP are called the legs of the right triangle and segment RQ is called the

hypotenuse. The legs form the right angle ∠ RPQ. The side opposite the right angle is

hypotenuse RQ.

Classification of Triangles by Angles

Acute triangle: a triangle with three acute angles

Obtuse triangle: a triangle with one obtuse angle

Right triangle: a triangle with one right angle

True or False: Give a reason or counterexample to justify your response.

1. An equilateral triangle is always acute.

2. An obtuse triangle can also be isosceles.

3. The acute angles of a right triangle are complementary.

4. Use the figure below and find the value of x for each of the following.

4.
a) AC= (x2-2x+4) and BC= (x2+3x-11).

b) BC= 17+3x and AC= x+25

c) AC= x2-6x and BC= x-12

5. Given ∆ABC with vertices A(1,5), B(5,5), and C(5,1)

a) graph ∆ABC in the coordinate plane.

b) classify this triangle by its sides and angles.

Triangles can also be classified by using a combination of angle and side descriptors.

Right isosceles triangle

Right scalene triangle

Obtuse isosceles triangle

b) BC= 17+3x and AC= x+25

c) AC= x2-6x and BC= x-12

5. Given ∆ABC with vertices A(1,5), B(5,5), and C(5,1)

a) graph ∆ABC in the coordinate plane.

b) classify this triangle by its sides and angles.

Triangles can also be classified by using a combination of angle and side descriptors.

Right isosceles triangle

Right scalene triangle

Obtuse isosceles triangle

5.
Complete each statement below with always, sometimes, or never and give a justification for

your answer.

1. A scalene triangle is _________ an acute triangle.

2. A right triangle is __________ an obtuse triangle.

3. An isosceles triangle is_________ a right triangle.

4. An equilateral triangle is __________ an isosceles triangle.

5. The acute angles of a right triangle are________ supplementary.

6. A right isosceles triangle is _________ equilateral.

your answer.

1. A scalene triangle is _________ an acute triangle.

2. A right triangle is __________ an obtuse triangle.

3. An isosceles triangle is_________ a right triangle.

4. An equilateral triangle is __________ an isosceles triangle.

5. The acute angles of a right triangle are________ supplementary.

6. A right isosceles triangle is _________ equilateral.

6.
Exploration

Using linguine, snap off the ends to make segments 3, 5, 6, and 9 inches long.

1. Determine which sets of three lengths will make a triangle.

2. Which sets of three segments did not form a closed figure in the plane?

3. What do the sets that form a triangle have in common?

1. A triangle can be formed using the following sets of lengths:

3, 5, 6 5, 6, 9

2. The set consisting of 3, 6, and 9 did not form a triangle. 3+6=9

3. The sum of the lengths of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the length

of the third side.

This exploration leads to the following theorem:

Triangle Inequality Theorem

The sum of the lengths of any two sides

of a triangle is greater than the length of

the third side.

1. Two sides of a triangle have lengths of 4 cm and 7 cm. What are the possible

lengths for the third side?

4 cm + 7 cm > x and 4 cm + x > 7 cm and 7 cm + x > 4 cm

11 cm > x and x > 3 cm and x > -3 cm

The intersection of these inequalities can be represented graphically as the

intersection of three rays with open endpoints as shown below.

Using linguine, snap off the ends to make segments 3, 5, 6, and 9 inches long.

1. Determine which sets of three lengths will make a triangle.

2. Which sets of three segments did not form a closed figure in the plane?

3. What do the sets that form a triangle have in common?

1. A triangle can be formed using the following sets of lengths:

3, 5, 6 5, 6, 9

2. The set consisting of 3, 6, and 9 did not form a triangle. 3+6=9

3. The sum of the lengths of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the length

of the third side.

This exploration leads to the following theorem:

Triangle Inequality Theorem

The sum of the lengths of any two sides

of a triangle is greater than the length of

the third side.

1. Two sides of a triangle have lengths of 4 cm and 7 cm. What are the possible

lengths for the third side?

4 cm + 7 cm > x and 4 cm + x > 7 cm and 7 cm + x > 4 cm

11 cm > x and x > 3 cm and x > -3 cm

The intersection of these inequalities can be represented graphically as the

intersection of three rays with open endpoints as shown below.

7.
All possible lengths of the third side are represented by the inequality

11cm > x > 3 cm.

1. The lengths of three segments are given. Determine if these segments can be

used to form a triangle.

a) 11 cm, 15 cm, and 23 cm

b) 7.5 in, 8.3 in, and 4.2 in

2. The lengths of two sides of ∆ABC are given as A=12 ft and BC=17 ft.

What are the possible lengths of the third side AC?

3. ∆DEF has side lengths as follows: DF=(x+1) m , DE=(3x-4) m , and

EF= (x+7) m. What are the possible values of x ?

Segments of Triangles

We will discuss three segments in a triangle: altitudes, medians, angle bisectors

Definition

An altitude of a triangle is the segment drawn from

a vertex perpendicular to the opposite side or

extension of that side.

11cm > x > 3 cm.

1. The lengths of three segments are given. Determine if these segments can be

used to form a triangle.

a) 11 cm, 15 cm, and 23 cm

b) 7.5 in, 8.3 in, and 4.2 in

2. The lengths of two sides of ∆ABC are given as A=12 ft and BC=17 ft.

What are the possible lengths of the third side AC?

3. ∆DEF has side lengths as follows: DF=(x+1) m , DE=(3x-4) m , and

EF= (x+7) m. What are the possible values of x ?

Segments of Triangles

We will discuss three segments in a triangle: altitudes, medians, angle bisectors

Definition

An altitude of a triangle is the segment drawn from

a vertex perpendicular to the opposite side or

extension of that side.

8.
Every triangle has three altitudes as shown in the figures below.

In the previous drawings, it seems that the altitudes intersect in a common point. Investigate this

idea by using paper folding with patty paper.

a) Draw a large triangle on a sheet of patty paper.

b) Cut out the triangle along its sides.

c) Fold the altitudes of this triangle.

d) The common point of intersection of these altitudes is called the orthocenter.

Definition

A median of a triangle is a segment having

one endpoint at a vertex of a triangle and

the other endpoint at the midpoint of the

opposite side.

A triangle also has three medians as shown in the diagram below.

The medians in the drawing also seem to meet in a common point. Use patty paper and paper

folding to verify this idea.

a) Draw a large triangle on a sheet of patty paper.

b) Cut out the triangle along its sides.

In the previous drawings, it seems that the altitudes intersect in a common point. Investigate this

idea by using paper folding with patty paper.

a) Draw a large triangle on a sheet of patty paper.

b) Cut out the triangle along its sides.

c) Fold the altitudes of this triangle.

d) The common point of intersection of these altitudes is called the orthocenter.

Definition

A median of a triangle is a segment having

one endpoint at a vertex of a triangle and

the other endpoint at the midpoint of the

opposite side.

A triangle also has three medians as shown in the diagram below.

The medians in the drawing also seem to meet in a common point. Use patty paper and paper

folding to verify this idea.

a) Draw a large triangle on a sheet of patty paper.

b) Cut out the triangle along its sides.

9.
c) Crease each segment in the middle after matching its endpoints by folding the

paper. This point that divides each segment into two congruent segments is called

a midpoint.

d) Make another fold connecting the midpoint of a side with the opposite vertex

to form the median. Repeat this process for the other two sides.

e) The point where all three medians intersect is called the centroid or center of

mass.

Definition

An angle bisector of a triangle is the segment

that bisects an angle of a triangle with one

endpoint at the vertex of the angle bisected

and the other endpoint on the opposite side

of the triangle.

Every triangle has three angle bisectors as shown in the figure below.

We have medians and altitudes intersecting in a common point and it seems that the angle

bisectors also have a common point of intersection. Use paper folding with patty paper to

investigate this idea.

a) Begin by drawing a large triangle on a sheet of patty paper.

b) Use scissors to cut out the triangle along its sides.

c) Hold an angle at its vertex and fold so that the sides meet along a line that

includes the vertex. Continue this process and fold the other angle bisectors.

d) The common point of intersection of these angle bisectors is called the incenter,

the center of the inscribed circle in the triangle.

paper. This point that divides each segment into two congruent segments is called

a midpoint.

d) Make another fold connecting the midpoint of a side with the opposite vertex

to form the median. Repeat this process for the other two sides.

e) The point where all three medians intersect is called the centroid or center of

mass.

Definition

An angle bisector of a triangle is the segment

that bisects an angle of a triangle with one

endpoint at the vertex of the angle bisected

and the other endpoint on the opposite side

of the triangle.

Every triangle has three angle bisectors as shown in the figure below.

We have medians and altitudes intersecting in a common point and it seems that the angle

bisectors also have a common point of intersection. Use paper folding with patty paper to

investigate this idea.

a) Begin by drawing a large triangle on a sheet of patty paper.

b) Use scissors to cut out the triangle along its sides.

c) Hold an angle at its vertex and fold so that the sides meet along a line that

includes the vertex. Continue this process and fold the other angle bisectors.

d) The common point of intersection of these angle bisectors is called the incenter,

the center of the inscribed circle in the triangle.

10.
It has been shown that the altitudes, medians, and angle bisectors each have a common point of

intersection called a point of concurrency.

1. Given: ∆DOT as shown

Find the value of x so that AT is an altitude.

2. Given: ∆PQR as shown

PM = (3x- 8) in

MR = (x + 5) in

Find the value of x so that RM is a median.

3. Given: ∆ANG as shown below

m∠NAB = (5x – 4)

m∠GAB = (3x + 10)

Find: x so that AB is the angle bisector of ∠NAG

intersection called a point of concurrency.

1. Given: ∆DOT as shown

Find the value of x so that AT is an altitude.

2. Given: ∆PQR as shown

PM = (3x- 8) in

MR = (x + 5) in

Find the value of x so that RM is a median.

3. Given: ∆ANG as shown below

m∠NAB = (5x – 4)

m∠GAB = (3x + 10)

Find: x so that AB is the angle bisector of ∠NAG

11.
Solutions:

1. TA ⊥ DO (Definition of an altitude)

∠TAD is a right angle (⊥s form right angles)

m∠TAD = 90 (Right ∠s have a measure of 90°.)

3x + 15 = 90 (Substitution)

3x = 75 (Subtraction property of equality)

x = 25 (Division/multiplication property of equality)

2. PM = MR (Definition of a median)

3x – 8 = x + 5 (Substitution)

2x = 13 (Addition property of equality)

x = 6.5 (Division/multiplication property of equality)

3. m∠NAB = m∠GAB (Definition of an angle bisector)

5x – 4 = 3x + 10 (Substitution)

2x = 14 (Addition property of equality)

x=7 (Division/multiplication property of equality)

1. Given: ∆SWI

1

SM = ( x + 3) cm

2

2

MW = ( x – 1) cm

3

1. TA ⊥ DO (Definition of an altitude)

∠TAD is a right angle (⊥s form right angles)

m∠TAD = 90 (Right ∠s have a measure of 90°.)

3x + 15 = 90 (Substitution)

3x = 75 (Subtraction property of equality)

x = 25 (Division/multiplication property of equality)

2. PM = MR (Definition of a median)

3x – 8 = x + 5 (Substitution)

2x = 13 (Addition property of equality)

x = 6.5 (Division/multiplication property of equality)

3. m∠NAB = m∠GAB (Definition of an angle bisector)

5x – 4 = 3x + 10 (Substitution)

2x = 14 (Addition property of equality)

x=7 (Division/multiplication property of equality)

1. Given: ∆SWI

1

SM = ( x + 3) cm

2

2

MW = ( x – 1) cm

3

12.
Find: x so that IM is a median

2. Given: ∆ABC

m∠ABD = (5x – 7.5)

m∠CBD = (3x + 16.5)

Find: x so that BD is an angle bisector

3. Given: ∆CAN

m∠ATN = (4x + 18)

Find: x so that AT is an altitude

2. Given: ∆ABC

m∠ABD = (5x – 7.5)

m∠CBD = (3x + 16.5)

Find: x so that BD is an angle bisector

3. Given: ∆CAN

m∠ATN = (4x + 18)

Find: x so that AT is an altitude

13.
Congruent Triangles

Cut pieces of linguine into lengths of 6 in, 8 in, and 10 in.

1. Use the pieces of linguine to form a triangle.

2. Is it possible to form a different triangle using these lengths? Explain.

3. How do these triangles compare?

1. The pieces of linguine can be used to form the following triangle.

2. It is possible to form triangles with different orientations in the plane as shown

below.

3. The triangles have the same size and shape as the original triangle shown.

Use a piece of tracing or patty paper to trace the triangles in solution 2. Use rotations and

translations to match corresponding sides .

1. How do the corresponding angles compare?

2. How many parts of one triangle match with corresponding parts of another triangle

having the same size and shape?

3. What is the relationship between corresponding sides and corresponding angles in the

set of triangles?

1. The corresponding angles have the same measure.

2. Three sides and three angles of one triangle match with three corresponding sides and

three corresponding angles of another triangle.

3. Corresponding sides are opposite corresponding angles. The triangles

in solution 1 and solution 2 are said to be congruent.

Cut pieces of linguine into lengths of 6 in, 8 in, and 10 in.

1. Use the pieces of linguine to form a triangle.

2. Is it possible to form a different triangle using these lengths? Explain.

3. How do these triangles compare?

1. The pieces of linguine can be used to form the following triangle.

2. It is possible to form triangles with different orientations in the plane as shown

below.

3. The triangles have the same size and shape as the original triangle shown.

Use a piece of tracing or patty paper to trace the triangles in solution 2. Use rotations and

translations to match corresponding sides .

1. How do the corresponding angles compare?

2. How many parts of one triangle match with corresponding parts of another triangle

having the same size and shape?

3. What is the relationship between corresponding sides and corresponding angles in the

set of triangles?

1. The corresponding angles have the same measure.

2. Three sides and three angles of one triangle match with three corresponding sides and

three corresponding angles of another triangle.

3. Corresponding sides are opposite corresponding angles. The triangles

in solution 1 and solution 2 are said to be congruent.

14.
Congruent Triangles

Two triangles are congruent if and only

if their corresponding sides and their

corresponding angles are congruent.

1. Given triangle ABC is congruent to triangle DEF. Identify the corresponding parts in

the two triangles.

Another way to state that triangle ABC is congruent to triangle DEF is by using the

notation: ∆ABC ≅ ∆DEF

The corresponding sides and corresponding angles can be identified by matching the

corresponding vertices of the two triangles as shown below.

The corresponding sides and corresponding angles of two congruent triangles are referred to as

corresponding parts of congruent triangles. We often write CPCTC for “Corresponding Parts of

Congruent Triangles are Congruent”.

Two triangles are congruent if and only

if their corresponding sides and their

corresponding angles are congruent.

1. Given triangle ABC is congruent to triangle DEF. Identify the corresponding parts in

the two triangles.

Another way to state that triangle ABC is congruent to triangle DEF is by using the

notation: ∆ABC ≅ ∆DEF

The corresponding sides and corresponding angles can be identified by matching the

corresponding vertices of the two triangles as shown below.

The corresponding sides and corresponding angles of two congruent triangles are referred to as

corresponding parts of congruent triangles. We often write CPCTC for “Corresponding Parts of

Congruent Triangles are Congruent”.

15.
2. Show that the congruence of triangles is reflexive.

Given: ∆RST

Show ∆RST ≅ ∆RST

We know that RT ≅ RT , RS ≅ RS , and TS ≅ TS by the reflexive property of

equality. ∠R ≅ ∠R, ∠S ≅ ∠S, and ∠T ≅ ∠T by the reflexive property of equality.

We now have three sides and three angles of ∆RST congruent to the three

corresponding sides and corresponding angles of ∆RST. By the definition of

congruent triangles, ∆RST ≅ ∆RST.

3. Show that the congruence of triangles is transitive.

Given: ∆RST ≅ ∆UVW, ∆UVW ≅ ∆XYZ

Show ∆RST ≅ ∆XYZ

We know that RS ≅ UV , RT ≅ UW , ST ≅ VW , ∠R ≅ ∠U, ∠S ≅ ∠V, and

∠T ≅ ∠W by CPCTC given ∆RST ≅ ∆UVW. Since ∆UVW ≅ ∆XYZ, we have

UV ≅ XY , UW ≅ XZ , VW ≅ YZ , ∠U ≅ ∠X, ∠V ≅ ∠Y, and ∠W ≅ ∠Z by

CPCTC. We know that congruent sides have equal measures and by the transitive

property of equality we have the following: RS = XY, RT = XZ, and ST =YZ

Using a similar justification, the following is true for corresponding angles:

m∠R = m∠X, m∠S = m∠Y, and m∠T = m∠Z

∆RST ≅ ∆XYZ by definition of congruent triangles.

4. Congruence of triangles is also symmetric. This justification is left as an optional

exercise.

Given: ∆RST

Show ∆RST ≅ ∆RST

We know that RT ≅ RT , RS ≅ RS , and TS ≅ TS by the reflexive property of

equality. ∠R ≅ ∠R, ∠S ≅ ∠S, and ∠T ≅ ∠T by the reflexive property of equality.

We now have three sides and three angles of ∆RST congruent to the three

corresponding sides and corresponding angles of ∆RST. By the definition of

congruent triangles, ∆RST ≅ ∆RST.

3. Show that the congruence of triangles is transitive.

Given: ∆RST ≅ ∆UVW, ∆UVW ≅ ∆XYZ

Show ∆RST ≅ ∆XYZ

We know that RS ≅ UV , RT ≅ UW , ST ≅ VW , ∠R ≅ ∠U, ∠S ≅ ∠V, and

∠T ≅ ∠W by CPCTC given ∆RST ≅ ∆UVW. Since ∆UVW ≅ ∆XYZ, we have

UV ≅ XY , UW ≅ XZ , VW ≅ YZ , ∠U ≅ ∠X, ∠V ≅ ∠Y, and ∠W ≅ ∠Z by

CPCTC. We know that congruent sides have equal measures and by the transitive

property of equality we have the following: RS = XY, RT = XZ, and ST =YZ

Using a similar justification, the following is true for corresponding angles:

m∠R = m∠X, m∠S = m∠Y, and m∠T = m∠Z

∆RST ≅ ∆XYZ by definition of congruent triangles.

4. Congruence of triangles is also symmetric. This justification is left as an optional

exercise.

16.
1. Given ∆MNO ≅ ∆PQR, identify the corresponding parts.

2. Given: ∆MNO ≅ ∆PQR, MN = (5x-11), PQ = (3x-2)

Find: x and MN

3. Given: ∆KLM ≅ ∆NOP, m∠M = (5x + 23), and m∠P = (3x + 40)

Find: x and m∠P

4. Given: ∆ABC with vertices A(-3,2), B(2,6), and C(-3,6) and

∆EFG with vertices E(2,2), F(7,-2), and G(2,-2)

a) Find the lengths of each side and determine if the triangles are congruent.

b) If the triangles are congruent, write a congruence statement for the two triangles.

If the triangles are not congruent, justify your conclusion.

By the definition of congruent triangles, two triangles are congruent if and only if the six parts of

one triangle are congruent to the six corresponding parts of a second triangle. Is it possible for

two triangles to be congruent using only some of the corresponding parts? If so, which

corresponding parts are sufficient to show two triangles congruent?

Do problem 1 in the activity Look Alikes using Cabri Junior™ on a TI-83+ graphing calculator.

In this exploration, a triangle will be constructed using three sides of a given triangle. The results

of this exploration leads us to the SSS congruence postulate for proving two triangles congruent.

SSS Congruence Postulate

Two triangles are congruent if and only if

three sides of one triangle are congruent

to three sides of a second triangle.

1. Determine which of the following represents a pair of congruent triangles.

2. Given: ∆MNO ≅ ∆PQR, MN = (5x-11), PQ = (3x-2)

Find: x and MN

3. Given: ∆KLM ≅ ∆NOP, m∠M = (5x + 23), and m∠P = (3x + 40)

Find: x and m∠P

4. Given: ∆ABC with vertices A(-3,2), B(2,6), and C(-3,6) and

∆EFG with vertices E(2,2), F(7,-2), and G(2,-2)

a) Find the lengths of each side and determine if the triangles are congruent.

b) If the triangles are congruent, write a congruence statement for the two triangles.

If the triangles are not congruent, justify your conclusion.

By the definition of congruent triangles, two triangles are congruent if and only if the six parts of

one triangle are congruent to the six corresponding parts of a second triangle. Is it possible for

two triangles to be congruent using only some of the corresponding parts? If so, which

corresponding parts are sufficient to show two triangles congruent?

Do problem 1 in the activity Look Alikes using Cabri Junior™ on a TI-83+ graphing calculator.

In this exploration, a triangle will be constructed using three sides of a given triangle. The results

of this exploration leads us to the SSS congruence postulate for proving two triangles congruent.

SSS Congruence Postulate

Two triangles are congruent if and only if

three sides of one triangle are congruent

to three sides of a second triangle.

1. Determine which of the following represents a pair of congruent triangles.

17.
2. Given: ∆ACB is isosceles , point M is the midpoint of AB

Show ∆AMC ≅ ∆BMC.

AC ≅ CB by the definition of an isosceles triangle. AM ≅ MB since M is the

midpoint of AB . CM ≅ CM by the reflexive property of equality. Now we have

∆AMC ≅ ∆BMC by the SSS congruency postulate.

3. Given: RS ≅ VT , RT ≅ SV

Prove: ∠SRT ≅ ∠TVS

Statements Reasons

1. RS ≅ VT 1. Given

RT ≅ SV

2. ST ≅ ST 2. Reflexive property of equality

3. ∆SRT ≅ ∆TVS 3. SSS congruence postulate

4. ∠SRT ≅ ∠TVS 4. CPCTC

Show ∆AMC ≅ ∆BMC.

AC ≅ CB by the definition of an isosceles triangle. AM ≅ MB since M is the

midpoint of AB . CM ≅ CM by the reflexive property of equality. Now we have

∆AMC ≅ ∆BMC by the SSS congruency postulate.

3. Given: RS ≅ VT , RT ≅ SV

Prove: ∠SRT ≅ ∠TVS

Statements Reasons

1. RS ≅ VT 1. Given

RT ≅ SV

2. ST ≅ ST 2. Reflexive property of equality

3. ∆SRT ≅ ∆TVS 3. SSS congruence postulate

4. ∠SRT ≅ ∠TVS 4. CPCTC

18.
1. Given: ∆MNO ≅ ∆PQR

Determine whether each statement is true or false and give a justification for your

answer.

a) MN ≅ PQ

b) ∠MNO ≅ ∠PRQ

c) m∠OMN = m∠QPR

2. Given: PQ ≅ SR

PS ≅ QR

Prove: ∆PQS ≅ ∆RSQ

Complete the proof with an appropriate statement or reason.

Statements Reasons

1. PQ ≅ SR 1. _________________________

PS ≅ QR

2. ___________________________ 2. Transitive property of equality

3. ∆PQS ≅ ∆RSQ 3. __________________________

Determine whether each statement is true or false and give a justification for your

answer.

a) MN ≅ PQ

b) ∠MNO ≅ ∠PRQ

c) m∠OMN = m∠QPR

2. Given: PQ ≅ SR

PS ≅ QR

Prove: ∆PQS ≅ ∆RSQ

Complete the proof with an appropriate statement or reason.

Statements Reasons

1. PQ ≅ SR 1. _________________________

PS ≅ QR

2. ___________________________ 2. Transitive property of equality

3. ∆PQS ≅ ∆RSQ 3. __________________________

19.
3. Given: AE ≅ BF

EC ≅ DF

AB ≅ CD

Prove: ∠AEC ≅ ∠BFD

Proof:

Statements Reasons

1. AE ≅ BF 1.____________________________

EC ≅ DF

AB ≅ CD

2. AE = BF, EC = DF, AB = CD 2. ___________________________

3. _________________________ 3. Reflexive property

4. AB + BC = CD + BC 4. ___________________________

5. AB + BC = AC, CD + BC = BD 5. ___________________________

6. __________________________ 6. Substitution

7. __________________________ 7. SSS congruence postulate

8. ∠AEC ≅ ∠BFD 8. ___________________________

4. Given: ∆RST with vertices R(-3,8), S(2,5), and T(2,8)

∆MNP with vertices M(10,0), N(5,3), and P(5,0)

EC ≅ DF

AB ≅ CD

Prove: ∠AEC ≅ ∠BFD

Proof:

Statements Reasons

1. AE ≅ BF 1.____________________________

EC ≅ DF

AB ≅ CD

2. AE = BF, EC = DF, AB = CD 2. ___________________________

3. _________________________ 3. Reflexive property

4. AB + BC = CD + BC 4. ___________________________

5. AB + BC = AC, CD + BC = BD 5. ___________________________

6. __________________________ 6. Substitution

7. __________________________ 7. SSS congruence postulate

8. ∠AEC ≅ ∠BFD 8. ___________________________

4. Given: ∆RST with vertices R(-3,8), S(2,5), and T(2,8)

∆MNP with vertices M(10,0), N(5,3), and P(5,0)

20.
Show ∆RST ≅ ∆MNP.

Refer to the activity Look Alikes in the Geometry Module. Use a TI-83+ graphing calculator

with Cabri Junior™ and do problem 2. In this problem, a triangle will be constructed using two

sides and the included angle of a given triangle. Side lengths and angle measures of the

constructed triangle will be compared to the corresponding side lengths and angle measures of

the original triangle.

This activity refers to two sides and the included angle of a triangle. In the diagram below, the

sides XZ and XY of ∆XYZ are included in the sides of ∠ZXY

In the diagram below, the given sides (marked) are not included in the sides of ∠ZXY. This

diagram does not represent two sides and the included angle of a triangle.

The results of this exploration lead us to the following congruence postulate for triangles.

Refer to the activity Look Alikes in the Geometry Module. Use a TI-83+ graphing calculator

with Cabri Junior™ and do problem 2. In this problem, a triangle will be constructed using two

sides and the included angle of a given triangle. Side lengths and angle measures of the

constructed triangle will be compared to the corresponding side lengths and angle measures of

the original triangle.

This activity refers to two sides and the included angle of a triangle. In the diagram below, the

sides XZ and XY of ∆XYZ are included in the sides of ∠ZXY

In the diagram below, the given sides (marked) are not included in the sides of ∠ZXY. This

diagram does not represent two sides and the included angle of a triangle.

The results of this exploration lead us to the following congruence postulate for triangles.

21.
SAS Congruence Postulate

Two triangles are congruent if and only if

two sides and the included angle of one

triangle are congruent to two sides and the

included angle of the second triangle.

1. Which of the following represents a pair of congruent triangles? State the congruence

postulate that applies and write a justification.

Two triangles are congruent if and only if

two sides and the included angle of one

triangle are congruent to two sides and the

included angle of the second triangle.

1. Which of the following represents a pair of congruent triangles? State the congruence

postulate that applies and write a justification.

22.
d) Given: AD and CE bisect each other at point O

+ AOC ≅+ DOE

1. a) The triangles do not represent a pair of congruent triangles since the angle shown

is not the included angle for the two sides given.

b) The pair of triangles shown are congruent by the SAS congruence postulate since

the sides marked are included in the sides of the right angle.

c) ∆RST ≅ ∆RUT by the SAS congruence postulate as follows:

S ST ≅ TU These corresponding sides are given.

A ∠STR ≅ ∠RUT An angle bisector divides an angle into two congruent

angles.

S RT ≅ RT Reflexive property

d) ∆AOC ≅ ∆DOE by the SAS and SSS congruence postulates.

Using the SAS congruence postulate, we have the following justification:

S CO ≅ EO A bisector of a segment divides it into two congruent

segments.

A ∠AOC ≅ ∠DOE Vertical angles are congruent.

S AO ≅ DO A bisector of a segment divides it into two congruent

segments.

Using the SSS congruence postulate, we have the following justification:

S AC ≅ DE Given

S CO ≅ EO A bisector of a segment divides it into two congruent

segments.

S AO ≅ DO A bisector of a segment divides it into two congruent

segments.

+ AOC ≅+ DOE

1. a) The triangles do not represent a pair of congruent triangles since the angle shown

is not the included angle for the two sides given.

b) The pair of triangles shown are congruent by the SAS congruence postulate since

the sides marked are included in the sides of the right angle.

c) ∆RST ≅ ∆RUT by the SAS congruence postulate as follows:

S ST ≅ TU These corresponding sides are given.

A ∠STR ≅ ∠RUT An angle bisector divides an angle into two congruent

angles.

S RT ≅ RT Reflexive property

d) ∆AOC ≅ ∆DOE by the SAS and SSS congruence postulates.

Using the SAS congruence postulate, we have the following justification:

S CO ≅ EO A bisector of a segment divides it into two congruent

segments.

A ∠AOC ≅ ∠DOE Vertical angles are congruent.

S AO ≅ DO A bisector of a segment divides it into two congruent

segments.

Using the SSS congruence postulate, we have the following justification:

S AC ≅ DE Given

S CO ≅ EO A bisector of a segment divides it into two congruent

segments.

S AO ≅ DO A bisector of a segment divides it into two congruent

segments.

23.
2. Given: AC ≅ BD

∠CAB ≅ ∠DBA

Prove: AD ≅ BC

Complete the following proof.

Statements Reasons

1. AC ≅ BD 1. __________________________

∠CAB ≅ ∠DBA

2. _________________________

2. Reflexive property

3. _________________________

3. SAS congruence postulate

4. AD ≅ BC

4. __________________________

3. Given: ∆ABC with vertices A(-2,6), B(1,2), and C(1,8)

∆DFE with vertices D(7,4), F(4,0), and E(4,6)

∠BAC = ∠FDE = 86.8°

a) Graph the coordinates of the vertices of each triangle in the coordinate plane.

∠CAB ≅ ∠DBA

Prove: AD ≅ BC

Complete the following proof.

Statements Reasons

1. AC ≅ BD 1. __________________________

∠CAB ≅ ∠DBA

2. _________________________

2. Reflexive property

3. _________________________

3. SAS congruence postulate

4. AD ≅ BC

4. __________________________

3. Given: ∆ABC with vertices A(-2,6), B(1,2), and C(1,8)

∆DFE with vertices D(7,4), F(4,0), and E(4,6)

∠BAC = ∠FDE = 86.8°

a) Graph the coordinates of the vertices of each triangle in the coordinate plane.

24.
b) Determine if ∆ABC ≅ ∆DFE and state the congruence postulate used.

4. Given: ∆KAR ≅ ∆GTO with KA = (3x-10) , GT = (x+2),

m∠KAR = (5y-40) and m∠GTO = (3y-8)

Find: x, y and KA

2. Statements Reasons

1. AC ≅ BD 1. Given

∠CAB ≅ ∠DBA

2. Reflexive property

2. AB ≅ AB

3. SAS congruence postulate

3. ∆CAB ≅ ∆DBA

4. AD ≅ BC 4. CPCTC

3. b) The distance formula can be used to determine the distance between two points

with coordinates (x, y) and (x1,y1) in the coordinate plane:

d = ( x − x1 ) 2 + ( y − y1 ) 2

Using the distance formula above, the following lengths of sides can be

determined.

AC = (−2 − 1) 2 + (6 − 8) 2 = (−3) 2 + (−2) 2 = 9+4 = 13

AB = (−2 − 1) 2 + (6 − 2) 2 = (−3) 2 + 4 2 = 9 + 16 = 25 = 5

ED = (4 − 7) 2 + (6 − 4) 2 = (−3) 2 + 2 2 = 9+4 = 13

4. Given: ∆KAR ≅ ∆GTO with KA = (3x-10) , GT = (x+2),

m∠KAR = (5y-40) and m∠GTO = (3y-8)

Find: x, y and KA

2. Statements Reasons

1. AC ≅ BD 1. Given

∠CAB ≅ ∠DBA

2. Reflexive property

2. AB ≅ AB

3. SAS congruence postulate

3. ∆CAB ≅ ∆DBA

4. AD ≅ BC 4. CPCTC

3. b) The distance formula can be used to determine the distance between two points

with coordinates (x, y) and (x1,y1) in the coordinate plane:

d = ( x − x1 ) 2 + ( y − y1 ) 2

Using the distance formula above, the following lengths of sides can be

determined.

AC = (−2 − 1) 2 + (6 − 8) 2 = (−3) 2 + (−2) 2 = 9+4 = 13

AB = (−2 − 1) 2 + (6 − 2) 2 = (−3) 2 + 4 2 = 9 + 16 = 25 = 5

ED = (4 − 7) 2 + (6 − 4) 2 = (−3) 2 + 2 2 = 9+4 = 13

25.
DF = (7 − 4) 2 + (4 − 0) 2 = 32 + 4 2 = 9 + 16 = 25 = 5

We now have AC ≅ DE and AB ≅ DF since congruent segments have equal

measures. ∠BAC and ∠FDE have the same measure and are also congruent.

This gives us two sides and an included angle of ∆ABC congruent to two sides

and an included angle of ∆DFE. Therefore, ∆ABC ≅ ∆DFE by the SAS

congruence postulate.

4. We have KA = GT from the congruence statement. This allows us to write and solve

the following equation:

3x -10 = x + 2

2x = 12

x= 6

To find KA, substitute the value 6 for x in the equation KA = (3x-10) and get

KA = (3•6-10) = 8.

Since corresponding angles of congruent triangles are congruent,

m∠KAR = m∠GTO. By substituting the algebraic expressions for these measures,

we have the following equation: 5y-40 = 3y-8

Solve this equation for y : 2y = 32

y = 16

1. Given: AC ≅ BC

CD ≅ CE

Prove: ∠A ≅ ∠B

We now have AC ≅ DE and AB ≅ DF since congruent segments have equal

measures. ∠BAC and ∠FDE have the same measure and are also congruent.

This gives us two sides and an included angle of ∆ABC congruent to two sides

and an included angle of ∆DFE. Therefore, ∆ABC ≅ ∆DFE by the SAS

congruence postulate.

4. We have KA = GT from the congruence statement. This allows us to write and solve

the following equation:

3x -10 = x + 2

2x = 12

x= 6

To find KA, substitute the value 6 for x in the equation KA = (3x-10) and get

KA = (3•6-10) = 8.

Since corresponding angles of congruent triangles are congruent,

m∠KAR = m∠GTO. By substituting the algebraic expressions for these measures,

we have the following equation: 5y-40 = 3y-8

Solve this equation for y : 2y = 32

y = 16

1. Given: AC ≅ BC

CD ≅ CE

Prove: ∠A ≅ ∠B

26.
Complete the following proof.

Statements Reasons

1. ___________________________ 1. Given

___________________________

2. ___________________________ 2. Reflexive property

3. ∆ACE ≅ ∆BCD 3. __________________________

4. ___________________________ 4. CPCTC

2. Given: ∆ACB is isosceles with base AB

ray CD bisects ∠ACB

Show ∆ADB is isosceles

Write a justification explaining why ∆ADB is isosceles. This justification may be

written in the two-column format like the proof in exercise 1 or in a paragraph format.

3. Given: ∆PQR with vertices P(-3,1), Q(1,1), and R(1,6)

∆STU with vertices S(8,2), T(4,2), and U(4,7)

a) Graph the triangles in the coordinate plane.

b) Determine if ∆PQR and ∆STU are congruent.

c) Justify your answer.

4. Given: Right triangle ACB with right ∠ACB

Right triangle DEF with right ∠DEF

AC ≅ DE and BC ≅ EF

Prove: ∆ACB ≅ ∆DEF

This proof leads to the following theorem for proving right triangles congruent.

Statements Reasons

1. ___________________________ 1. Given

___________________________

2. ___________________________ 2. Reflexive property

3. ∆ACE ≅ ∆BCD 3. __________________________

4. ___________________________ 4. CPCTC

2. Given: ∆ACB is isosceles with base AB

ray CD bisects ∠ACB

Show ∆ADB is isosceles

Write a justification explaining why ∆ADB is isosceles. This justification may be

written in the two-column format like the proof in exercise 1 or in a paragraph format.

3. Given: ∆PQR with vertices P(-3,1), Q(1,1), and R(1,6)

∆STU with vertices S(8,2), T(4,2), and U(4,7)

a) Graph the triangles in the coordinate plane.

b) Determine if ∆PQR and ∆STU are congruent.

c) Justify your answer.

4. Given: Right triangle ACB with right ∠ACB

Right triangle DEF with right ∠DEF

AC ≅ DE and BC ≅ EF

Prove: ∆ACB ≅ ∆DEF

This proof leads to the following theorem for proving right triangles congruent.

27.
Leg-Leg Theorem

If two legs of one right triangle are

congruent to two legs of a second right

triangle, then the right triangles are

congruent.

5. Given: Circle O with radii OG and OH

OM bisects ∠GOH

GM = x2 + 2x + 5

HM = x2 + x + 11

OM = 3x – 6

Find: x, GH, and OM

Refer to the activity Look Alikes in the Geometry Module. Use a TI-83+ graphing calculator

with Cabri Junior™ and do problem 3. In this problem, a triangle will be constructed using two

angles and the included side of a given triangle. Angle measures and side lengths of the

constructed triangle will be compared to the corresponding angle measures and side lengths of

the original triangle.

This activity refers to two angles and the included side of a triangle. In the diagram below, HI

is the included side between ∠H and ∠I.

If two legs of one right triangle are

congruent to two legs of a second right

triangle, then the right triangles are

congruent.

5. Given: Circle O with radii OG and OH

OM bisects ∠GOH

GM = x2 + 2x + 5

HM = x2 + x + 11

OM = 3x – 6

Find: x, GH, and OM

Refer to the activity Look Alikes in the Geometry Module. Use a TI-83+ graphing calculator

with Cabri Junior™ and do problem 3. In this problem, a triangle will be constructed using two

angles and the included side of a given triangle. Angle measures and side lengths of the

constructed triangle will be compared to the corresponding angle measures and side lengths of

the original triangle.

This activity refers to two angles and the included side of a triangle. In the diagram below, HI

is the included side between ∠H and ∠I.

28.
The results of this exploration lead us to the following congruence postulate for triangles.

ASA Congruence Postulate

Two triangles are congruent if and only if

two angles and the included side of one

triangle are congruent to two angles and

the included side of a second triangle.

1. Which of the following pairs of triangles are congruent by the ASA congruence

postulate? Justify your reasoning.

2. Given: CD bisects ∠ACB

CD ⊥ AB

ASA Congruence Postulate

Two triangles are congruent if and only if

two angles and the included side of one

triangle are congruent to two angles and

the included side of a second triangle.

1. Which of the following pairs of triangles are congruent by the ASA congruence

postulate? Justify your reasoning.

2. Given: CD bisects ∠ACB

CD ⊥ AB

29.
Prove: ∆ACB is isosceles

using a flow-chart proof.

3. Given: ∠ADB ≅ ∠CBD

∠ABD ≅ ∠CDB

m ∠A = 3x + 15

m ∠C = 8x – 20

Find: x and m ∠A

1. a) ∆CAM ≅ ∆DBM by the ASA congruence postulate.

A ∠A ≅ ∠B (Right angles are congruent.)

S AM ≅ MB (A midpoint divides a segment into two congruent

segments.)

A ∠AMC ≅ ∠BMD (Given)

b) ∆WOX ≅ ∆ZOY by the SAS congruence postulate. The ASA congruence

postulate does not apply to this problem.

S XO ≅ YO (A bisector divides a segment into two congruent

segments.)

using a flow-chart proof.

3. Given: ∠ADB ≅ ∠CBD

∠ABD ≅ ∠CDB

m ∠A = 3x + 15

m ∠C = 8x – 20

Find: x and m ∠A

1. a) ∆CAM ≅ ∆DBM by the ASA congruence postulate.

A ∠A ≅ ∠B (Right angles are congruent.)

S AM ≅ MB (A midpoint divides a segment into two congruent

segments.)

A ∠AMC ≅ ∠BMD (Given)

b) ∆WOX ≅ ∆ZOY by the SAS congruence postulate. The ASA congruence

postulate does not apply to this problem.

S XO ≅ YO (A bisector divides a segment into two congruent

segments.)

30.
A ∠XOW ≅ ∠YOZ (Vertical angles are congruent.)

S WO ≅ OZ (A bisector divides a segment into two congruent

segments.)

2. A flow-chart proof shows the logical development of a proof using statements with

supporting justification(s) in a flow-chart format. The statements and reasons are

shown in rectangles with arrows indicating how they connect to other information

in rectangles. The flow of information should lead to the conclusion. The proof

that follows models one format that can be used.

CD bisects ∠ACB ∠ACD≅∠BCD

Definition of an

Given angle bisector

∆ACB is

isosceles

CD ≅ CD ∆ADC≅∆BDC AC ≅ BC Definition of

ASA postulate

Reflexive CPCTC an isosceles ∆

CD ⊥ AB ∠ADC and∠BDC

are right angles ∠ADC≅∠BDC

Given ⊥s form rt. ∠s All right ∠s≅

3. ∆ADB ≅ ∆CBD by the ASA congruence postulate.

A ∠ADB ≅ ∠CBD (Given)

S DB ≅ DB (Reflexive property)

A ∠ABD ≅ ∠CDB (Given)

∠A ≅ ∠C (CPCTC)

m ∠A = m ∠C (Congruent angles have equal measures.)

3x+15 = 8x-20 (Substitution)

35 = 5x (Addition and subtraction properties of equality)

7=x (Division property of equality)

m ∠A = 3x + 15 = 3•7 + 15 = 21 + 15 = 36

S WO ≅ OZ (A bisector divides a segment into two congruent

segments.)

2. A flow-chart proof shows the logical development of a proof using statements with

supporting justification(s) in a flow-chart format. The statements and reasons are

shown in rectangles with arrows indicating how they connect to other information

in rectangles. The flow of information should lead to the conclusion. The proof

that follows models one format that can be used.

CD bisects ∠ACB ∠ACD≅∠BCD

Definition of an

Given angle bisector

∆ACB is

isosceles

CD ≅ CD ∆ADC≅∆BDC AC ≅ BC Definition of

ASA postulate

Reflexive CPCTC an isosceles ∆

CD ⊥ AB ∠ADC and∠BDC

are right angles ∠ADC≅∠BDC

Given ⊥s form rt. ∠s All right ∠s≅

3. ∆ADB ≅ ∆CBD by the ASA congruence postulate.

A ∠ADB ≅ ∠CBD (Given)

S DB ≅ DB (Reflexive property)

A ∠ABD ≅ ∠CDB (Given)

∠A ≅ ∠C (CPCTC)

m ∠A = m ∠C (Congruent angles have equal measures.)

3x+15 = 8x-20 (Substitution)

35 = 5x (Addition and subtraction properties of equality)

7=x (Division property of equality)

m ∠A = 3x + 15 = 3•7 + 15 = 21 + 15 = 36

31.
1. Given: AD bisects BC

AB ⊥ BC

DC ⊥ BC

Prove: BC bisects AD

Proof:

Complete the proof below.

Statements Reasons

1. AD bisects BC 1. __________________________

AB ⊥ BC

DC ⊥ BC

2. ∠B and ∠C are right angles 2. __________________________

3. _________________________ 3. All right angles are congruent.

4. BE ≅ BC 4. __________________________

5. ∠AEB ≅ ∠DEC 5. __________________________

6. _________________________ 6. ASA congruence postulate

7. _________________________ 7. CPCTC

8. BC bisects AD 8. __________________________

AB ⊥ BC

DC ⊥ BC

Prove: BC bisects AD

Proof:

Complete the proof below.

Statements Reasons

1. AD bisects BC 1. __________________________

AB ⊥ BC

DC ⊥ BC

2. ∠B and ∠C are right angles 2. __________________________

3. _________________________ 3. All right angles are congruent.

4. BE ≅ BC 4. __________________________

5. ∠AEB ≅ ∠DEC 5. __________________________

6. _________________________ 6. ASA congruence postulate

7. _________________________ 7. CPCTC

8. BC bisects AD 8. __________________________

32.
2. Given: ∆YVW is isosceles with base VW

∠UYV ≅ ∠XYW

∠UVY ≅ ∠XWY

Prove ∠U ≅ ∠X using a flow-chart proof.

3. Given: ∠BAC ≅ ∠DCA

AE ≅ EC

DC = (x2 + 2x – 1) cm

AB = (x2 + 5x – 7) cm

Find: x and AB

4. Given: ∠M ≅ ∠R

MI ≅ RI

m ∠RPI = (9x – 10)

m ∠MQI = (4x + 45)

∠UYV ≅ ∠XYW

∠UVY ≅ ∠XWY

Prove ∠U ≅ ∠X using a flow-chart proof.

3. Given: ∠BAC ≅ ∠DCA

AE ≅ EC

DC = (x2 + 2x – 1) cm

AB = (x2 + 5x – 7) cm

Find: x and AB

4. Given: ∠M ≅ ∠R

MI ≅ RI

m ∠RPI = (9x – 10)

m ∠MQI = (4x + 45)

33.
Find: x and m ∠MQI

We have explored the SSS, SAS, and ASA congruence postulates and LL theorem (right

triangles only). Are there other ways to show two triangles congruent? We will consider the

possibility of using any two angles and a side (not included) of one triangle (AAS) congruent to

the corresponding parts of another triangle in the following proof.

Given: ∆HIJ and ∆KLM

∠H ≅ ∠K, ∠J ≅ ∠M

HI ≅ KL

Prove: ∆HIJ ≅ ∆KLM

We have explored the SSS, SAS, and ASA congruence postulates and LL theorem (right

triangles only). Are there other ways to show two triangles congruent? We will consider the

possibility of using any two angles and a side (not included) of one triangle (AAS) congruent to

the corresponding parts of another triangle in the following proof.

Given: ∆HIJ and ∆KLM

∠H ≅ ∠K, ∠J ≅ ∠M

HI ≅ KL

Prove: ∆HIJ ≅ ∆KLM

34.
∆HIJ and ∆KLM

Given

∠H ≅ ∠K ∆HIJ ≅ ∆KLM

Given ∠I ≅ ∠L

If 2 ∠s of one ∆ ≅ 2 ASA

∠s of a second ∆, congruence

∠J ≅ ∠M 3rd ∠s are ≅. postulate

Given

HI ≅ KL

Given

This proof leads to the following theorem for showing two triangles congruent.

AAS Congruence Theorem

If two angles and a side (not included)

are congruent to the corresponding parts

of a second triangle, then the two

triangles are congruent.

Is it possible for two triangles to be congruent using SSA where the angle is not included

between the two sides? Make a conjecture: ____________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________.

This conjecture will be tested in the following exploration.

Given: Two segments and a non-included angle

Given

∠H ≅ ∠K ∆HIJ ≅ ∆KLM

Given ∠I ≅ ∠L

If 2 ∠s of one ∆ ≅ 2 ASA

∠s of a second ∆, congruence

∠J ≅ ∠M 3rd ∠s are ≅. postulate

Given

HI ≅ KL

Given

This proof leads to the following theorem for showing two triangles congruent.

AAS Congruence Theorem

If two angles and a side (not included)

are congruent to the corresponding parts

of a second triangle, then the two

triangles are congruent.

Is it possible for two triangles to be congruent using SSA where the angle is not included

between the two sides? Make a conjecture: ____________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________.

This conjecture will be tested in the following exploration.

Given: Two segments and a non-included angle

35.
Patty paper, a compass, and straight edge will be needed for this exploration. Follow the

procedure outlined below.

a) Trace the longer segment given ( AB ) on a sheet of patty paper.

b) Place the patty paper over the given angle and align the vertex of the angle with

endpoint A of the longer segment. Align one of the sides of the angle with AB .

c) Trace the angle and extend the side not aligned with the segment as shown below.

d) Construct circle B with a radius equal to the length of the shorter segment given.

( The construction below is not drawn to scale.)

Circle B intersects ray AD in two points, point C and point D. There are two possible

triangles that can be constructed with the given ∠CAB, AB , and the shorter segment

represented by the radii BC and BD . ∆ABC and ∆ABD are the two triangles shown

in the figure above. Therefore, it is not possible to construct a unique triangle given

two sides and a non-included angle.

procedure outlined below.

a) Trace the longer segment given ( AB ) on a sheet of patty paper.

b) Place the patty paper over the given angle and align the vertex of the angle with

endpoint A of the longer segment. Align one of the sides of the angle with AB .

c) Trace the angle and extend the side not aligned with the segment as shown below.

d) Construct circle B with a radius equal to the length of the shorter segment given.

( The construction below is not drawn to scale.)

Circle B intersects ray AD in two points, point C and point D. There are two possible

triangles that can be constructed with the given ∠CAB, AB , and the shorter segment

represented by the radii BC and BD . ∆ABC and ∆ABD are the two triangles shown

in the figure above. Therefore, it is not possible to construct a unique triangle given

two sides and a non-included angle.

36.
1. Given: ∆CED is isosceles with base CD

GB ⊥ AD

CF ⊥ GE

CH = ED

CE = AG

∠A ≅ ∠FEC

∠GBF ≅ ∠CFB

Identify all pairs of congruent triangles in the figure given and explain the congruence

postulate or theorem used.

2. Given: ∠1 ≅ ∠2

DB ⊥ AC

Prove: DB bisects ∠ADC

GB ⊥ AD

CF ⊥ GE

CH = ED

CE = AG

∠A ≅ ∠FEC

∠GBF ≅ ∠CFB

Identify all pairs of congruent triangles in the figure given and explain the congruence

postulate or theorem used.

2. Given: ∠1 ≅ ∠2

DB ⊥ AC

Prove: DB bisects ∠ADC

37.
Write a paragraph, two-column, or flow-chart proof.

3. Given: ∆DBE is isosceles with base DE

∠A ≅ ∠C

∠ABE ≅ ∠CBD

1

AB = ( x + 1) cm

2

3

BC = ( x – 5) cm

4

Find: x, AB, and BC

1. ∆ABG ≅ ∆EFC by the AAS congruence theorem

A ∠A ≅ ∠FEC (Given)

A ∠ABG ≅ ∠EFC (⊥s form rt. ∠s and all rt. ∠s ≅)

S AG ≅ CE (CE=ED=AG; ≅ seg. have = meas.)

∆CDE ≅ ∆CDH by the SSS congruence postulate

S CH ≅ DE (Given; ≅ seg. have = meas.)

S CE ≅ DH (CE=ED=CH=DH; ≅ seg. have = meas.)

S CD ≅ CD (Reflexive property)

∆GBF ≅ ∆CFB by the SAS congruence postulate

S GB ≅ CF (∆ABG ≅ ∆EFC; CPCTC)

3. Given: ∆DBE is isosceles with base DE

∠A ≅ ∠C

∠ABE ≅ ∠CBD

1

AB = ( x + 1) cm

2

3

BC = ( x – 5) cm

4

Find: x, AB, and BC

1. ∆ABG ≅ ∆EFC by the AAS congruence theorem

A ∠A ≅ ∠FEC (Given)

A ∠ABG ≅ ∠EFC (⊥s form rt. ∠s and all rt. ∠s ≅)

S AG ≅ CE (CE=ED=AG; ≅ seg. have = meas.)

∆CDE ≅ ∆CDH by the SSS congruence postulate

S CH ≅ DE (Given; ≅ seg. have = meas.)

S CE ≅ DH (CE=ED=CH=DH; ≅ seg. have = meas.)

S CD ≅ CD (Reflexive property)

∆GBF ≅ ∆CFB by the SAS congruence postulate

S GB ≅ CF (∆ABG ≅ ∆EFC; CPCTC)

38.
A ∠GBF ≅ ∠CFB (Given)

S BF ≅ BF (Reflexive property)

2. Triangle ABD will be shown congruent to triangle CBD using the AAS congruence

theorem in a paragraph-style proof as follows.

Angle 1 is congruent to ∠DAB and ∠2 is congruent to ∠DCB because vertical angles

are congruent. Angle DBA and ∠DBC are right angles since DB ⊥ AC . It follows

that ∠DBA ≅ ∠DBC because all right angles are congruent. Side DB is congruent to

itself by the reflexive property. We now have ∆ADB ≅ ∆CDB by the AAS

congruence theorem. Angle ADB is congruent to ∠CDB by CPCTC. Therefore, DB

bisects ∠ADC.

3. ∆ABE ≅ ∆CBD by AAS

A ∠A ≅ ∠C (Given)

A ∠ABE ≅ ∠CBD (Given)

S BE ≅ BD (An isosceles triangle has 2 congruent sides.)

AB ≅ BC (CPCTC)

AB = BC (Congruent segments have equal measures.)

1 3

x+1= x–5 (Substitution)

2 4

1

6= x

4

24 = x

1

AB = •24 + 1 = 13 cm CD = AB = 13 cm

2

1. Given: ∠BAE ≅ ∠DBA

DB ≅ AE

a) Identify all pairs of congruent triangles in the given figure.

b) Explain the congruence postulate or theorem used.

S BF ≅ BF (Reflexive property)

2. Triangle ABD will be shown congruent to triangle CBD using the AAS congruence

theorem in a paragraph-style proof as follows.

Angle 1 is congruent to ∠DAB and ∠2 is congruent to ∠DCB because vertical angles

are congruent. Angle DBA and ∠DBC are right angles since DB ⊥ AC . It follows

that ∠DBA ≅ ∠DBC because all right angles are congruent. Side DB is congruent to

itself by the reflexive property. We now have ∆ADB ≅ ∆CDB by the AAS

congruence theorem. Angle ADB is congruent to ∠CDB by CPCTC. Therefore, DB

bisects ∠ADC.

3. ∆ABE ≅ ∆CBD by AAS

A ∠A ≅ ∠C (Given)

A ∠ABE ≅ ∠CBD (Given)

S BE ≅ BD (An isosceles triangle has 2 congruent sides.)

AB ≅ BC (CPCTC)

AB = BC (Congruent segments have equal measures.)

1 3

x+1= x–5 (Substitution)

2 4

1

6= x

4

24 = x

1

AB = •24 + 1 = 13 cm CD = AB = 13 cm

2

1. Given: ∠BAE ≅ ∠DBA

DB ≅ AE

a) Identify all pairs of congruent triangles in the given figure.

b) Explain the congruence postulate or theorem used.

39.
2. Given: ∠RVS ≅ ∠USV

∠RSV ≅ ∠UVS

∠WRV ≅ ∠TUS

∠W ≅ ∠T

2

VW = ( x + 3) in

3

5

ST = ( x – 1) in

6

1

RS = ( x + 5) in

2

3. Given: Isosceles ∆ABC with base AB

CD bisects the vertex angle

Prove: CD is a median to the base.

Write a paragraph, two-column, or flow-chart proof.

∠RSV ≅ ∠UVS

∠WRV ≅ ∠TUS

∠W ≅ ∠T

2

VW = ( x + 3) in

3

5

ST = ( x – 1) in

6

1

RS = ( x + 5) in

2

3. Given: Isosceles ∆ABC with base AB

CD bisects the vertex angle

Prove: CD is a median to the base.

Write a paragraph, two-column, or flow-chart proof.

40.
This proof leads to the following theorem for isosceles triangles.

Isosceles Triangle Theorem

The bisector of the vertex angle of an

isosceles triangle is the same segment

as the median to the base.

4. Given: ∆FRD with vertices F(-4,1), R(-1,3), and D(-3,5)

∆TSU with vertices T(1,1), S(4,3), and U(2,5)

∠F ≅ ∠T and ∠D≅ ∠U

a) Graph each triangle in the coordinate plane.

b) Show ∆FRD ≅ ∆TSU.

Isosceles Triangle Theorem

The bisector of the vertex angle of an

isosceles triangle is the same segment

as the median to the base.

4. Given: ∆FRD with vertices F(-4,1), R(-1,3), and D(-3,5)

∆TSU with vertices T(1,1), S(4,3), and U(2,5)

∠F ≅ ∠T and ∠D≅ ∠U

a) Graph each triangle in the coordinate plane.

b) Show ∆FRD ≅ ∆TSU.