Introduction to Teaching: Becoming a Professional

Contributed by:
Jonathan James
It includes the following topics:

- Why do people decide to teach
- Some of the rewards and difficulties in teaching
- What is a professional teacher: 4 characteristics
- How educational reforms will affect your life as a teacher: Standards
- Licensure process: 4+ years

1. Introduction to Teaching Topics
1. Do I want to be a teacher?
2. Professional
3. Diverse learners
4. Schools today
5. History
6. Philosophy
7. Governance and Finance
8. School Law
9. Standards: NCLB Act
10. Productive and effective schools
Introduction to Teaching
Becoming a Professional
“To be a professional, you must look the part,
act the part, and become the part.”……………
………….In every fiber of my bone, I am a teacher
–Maria San Paolo, Teacher
How to take notes for this class?
3. Chapter 1 Objectives
 Why people decide to teach
 Some of the rewards and difficulties in
 What is a professional teacher: 4
 How educational reforms will affect your
life as a teacher: Standards
 Licensure process: 4+ years
4. Chapter 1
Why Become a Teacher?
 Welcome. You’re
beginning a study of
teaching, one of the most
interesting, challenging,
and “noble professions”
that exists.
 No one has more potential
for touching the personal,
social, and intellectual lives
of students than do caring
and dedicated teachers.
5. Why Teach?
 You should have read
“Why I Teach” by Peter
 Section #4
Autobiographical Essay,
Portfolio assignment asks
Why you decided to
become a teacher; we will
explore this.
6. Responses to Interest in Teaching Inventory
Average Response
Item Item Focus of Students Survey Rank
1 Job security 4.3 6
2 Family influence 3.9 8
3 Summer vacations 4.0 7
4 Other careers not considered 2.6 9
5 Work with youth 6.4 1
6 Value to society 6.3 2
7 Content interest 5.4 4
8 Influence of teachers 5.0 5
9 Self-growth 5.5 3
7. 1) Intrinsic Rewards
 Intrinsic rewards are
personally satisfying for
emotional or intellectual
 Teachers’ interactions with
their students provide a
major source of intrinsic
8. 2) Emotional Rewards
 “ The beginning of the day
gets me going”she said,
smiling, during an
 “ I stand at the door, and
the children give me a hug,
a high-five, or a
handshake when they
come in the room.”
9.  Emotional or intellectual
satisfaction that goes with
believing they are making a
contribution to the world.
 Isthe 2nd reason for going into
 Rose-colored glasses.
10. 3) Intellectual Rewards
“ The opportunity for a lifetime
of self-growth”
 Professional dev.
 Degrees
“ When you see the light
bulb go on for someone, it’s
all worth it.”
 Knowledge changes your life
11. 4) Extrinsic Rewards
 Extrinsic rewards are career-linked
positive factors such as job security
and summer vacations.
 Usually about three years-teachers are
typically awarded tenure status.
 Identify three reasons for going into
 “June, July, and August.”
 Holiday Season
12. Cont. Extrinsic Rewards
 In addition to job security and
vacations, additional extrinsic
rewards include:
 Work schedules
 Autonomy, or being in control
 of one’s own existence.
 Status of position
 Salary Supplement
 Coach
 Drivers Ed
Rewards encourage a child to focus on parental approval, not on the
effect of their behavior on others.
13. Beginning and Average Teacher Salaries
for Each State
Introduction to Teaching: Becoming a Professional, 2nd Edition 2012-13
2013 ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Kauchak and EggenSee
14. Difficulties in Teaching
 Two of the most common issues
 a) working conditions and
 b) salaries.
 Factors that make teaching difficult
 Unsupportive administrators
 Parents who don’t support
 Students who are disruptive and
15. A) Reduced job satisfaction
 Stress
 poorer relationships with students,
 decreased teacher effectiveness, and
 teacher burnout.
 To much time on nonteaching
requirements and duties.
 “ If they would only give me the time and
resources I need, I could teach these
students something!”
16. B) Salaries
 Teacher salaries are another
concern. Low salaries
frequently are cited as a major
reason people either avoid
teaching as a career or leave
teaching after a few
years…..9 month salary.
18. Topics to consider:
Why Teach?
What is a Profession?
19. Home-school Cooperation
 Students benefit from home-
school cooperation in at least
five ways:
 Higher academic achievement.
 More positive attitudes
 More acceptable student
 Better attendance rates.
 Greater willingness to do
20. Weebly .com
 Autobiographical Essay:
 My Site:
 Dr.L.Egbert
Create a site: “Authentic Assessment”
21. 4 Characteristics of a Profession
1) K…nowledge
2) A…cademic Freedom
3) T…raining for licensure Autonomy:
4) E…thical standards for conduct
Professional- Knowledge base allows
teachers to make decisions in complex or
ill-define situations.
A professional will examine, refine, & broaden practices on a continuous basis.
22. 1) A Specialized Body of Knowledge
 Research indicates that Decision-making
effective teachers process
posses at least four
kinds of knowledge: Effective teachers stay
informed of research
 Subject Content in their fields, and
 Pedagogy skills they adapt their
 General ”how to” teaching to reflect this
 Knowledge of
 learners The product is
23. A Specialized Body of Knowledge
 Knowledge of subject content: teachers can’t teach
what they don’t know…Math, English
 Pedagogical (Art & Science) content
knowledge: the ability to illustrate and explain abstract
concepts HOTS.
 General (how to) pedagogical knowledge: being
able to manage and instruct effectively…lesson delivery, seat
 Knowledge of learners and learning (dev.):
understanding the developmental and learning needs of students
24. Danielson’s Model Discussed again in chapter 13
 Domain 1: Planning and  Domain 2: The Classroom
Preparation Environment
 Demonstrating Knowledge of Content  Creating an Environment of Respect and Rapport
and Pedagogy Demonstrating (1A)
 Knowledge of Students (1B)  Establishing a Culture for Learning
 Setting Instructional Outcomes (1C)  Managing Classroom Procedures
 Demonstrating Knowledge of Resources (1D)
 Designing Coherent Instruction
 Managing Student Behavior
 Designing Student Assessments (1F)  Organizing Physical Space
Domain 4: Professional
Domain 3: Instructional Delivery
 Reflecting on Teaching
• Communicating with Students
 Maintaining Accurate Records • Using Questioning and Discussion
 Communicating with Families • Techniques
 Participating in a Professional
• Engaging Students in Learning
 Community
• Using Assessment in Instruction
 Growing and Developing Professionally
 Showing Professionalism
• Demonstrating Flexibility and
• Responsiveness
25. Domain 1: Planning and Preparation
Lesson Planning…more information later
 Demonstrating Knowledge of Content
and Pedagogy Demonstrating (1A) Methods & Instructional Strategies
 Anticipatory set
 Build/Apply Knowledge
 Guided practice Seen on Le
 Independent practice sson Plans
 Wrap up/closure
 Setting Instructional Outcomes (1C)
 Goals & Objectives…unit goals/lesson goals/standards
 Knowledge of Students (1B)
 Differentiation According to Students Needs (Universal Design)
 Multiple means of representation , expression, & engagement (extension/remediation)
 Demonstrating Knowledge of Resources (1D)
 Materials/technology
 Designing Student Assessments (1F)
 Assessment (a) Formative-ongoing, (b) Summative- end of lesson
26. 2) Training for Licensure
 Bachelor’s degree prior to
 Complete the degree in a
content area
 Clinical experiences, such
as internships
 ……2nd characteristic of a
27. 3) Autonomy: Academic Freedom
You decide “how” these are done
 Curriculum- what teachers teach
 Assessment- how student
understanding is measured
 Standards- what students should
know and what skills they should
have upon completing an area of
28. 4) Professional Ethics
 Ethics describes moral standards
for good behavior.
 National Education Association
 Principle 1: student
 Principle 2: public
 Principle 3: profession
 Principle 4: Professional
Employment Practices
PSC for Idaho has 10 principles
29. National Education Association
 Principle I - Commitment to the
 The educator goal is to strives to help
each student realize his or her
potential as a worthy and effective
member of society.
Principle II – Commitment to the Profession
The quality of services of the
education profession directly
influences the nation and its citizens.
30. Decision Making and Reflective
 “Your obligation to yourself and your
profession is to know what is going on,
that is, what others are experiencing,
studying and writing”.
 Build your confidence
 Build your skills
 “knowledge of students, conceptions of
learning, pedagogical content knowledge,
and knowledge of goals and curriculum.”
 Reflective practitioner: constantly
evaluating the effectiveness of your
31. Reflective Practice
32. Becoming a Teacher in an Era of Reform
Discussed more fully in History chapter
 Reforms: “changes” in
teaching and teacher
preparation to increase
students learning.
 Standards……..
 Test-based-
 Choice-Parents
33. Standard-Based Education
 …….is the process of
focusing curriculum and
instruction on
predetermined standards.
 Criteria that must be met
 ( ex. ) Interstate New Teacher
Assessment and Support
Consortium (INTASC)….
34. The INTASC Principles
Principle Description
1. Knowledge of subject The teacher understands the central concepts, tools of inquiry, and structures of the discipline(s) he or
she teaches and can create learning experiences that make these aspects of subject matter meaningful for
2. Learning and human development The teacher understands how children learn and develop and can provide learning opportunities that
support their intellectual, social and personal development.
3. Adapting instruction The teacher understands how students differ in their approaches to learning and creates instructional
opportunities that are adapted to diverse learners.
4. Strategies The teacher understands and uses a variety of instructional strategies to encourage students’ development
of critical thinking, problem solving, and performance skills.
5. Motivation and management The teacher uses an understanding of individual and group motivation and behavior to create a learning
environment that encourages positive social interaction, active engagement in learning, and self-
6. Communication skills The teacher uses knowledge of effective verbal, nonverbal, and media communication techniques to
foster active inquiry, collaboration, and supportive interaction in the classroom.
7. Planning The teacher plans instruction based upon knowledge of subject matter, students, the community, and
curriculum goals.
8. Assessment The teacher understands and uses formal and informal assessment strategies to evaluate and ensure the
continuous intellectual, social, and physical development of the learner.
9. Commitment The teacher is a reflective practitioner who continually evaluates the effects of his/her choices and actions
on others (students, parents, and other professionals in the learning community) and who actively seeks
out opportunities to grow professionally.
10. Partnership The teacher fosters relationships with school colleagues, parents, and agencies in the larger community
to support students’ learning and well-being.
Source: From Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium. (1993).
Model standards for beginning teacher licensing and development: A resource for state dialogues.
©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers. Reprinted by permission.
35. Accountability
and High-Stakes Testing
 No Child Left Behind: federal legislation that attempts
to make schools and school districts accountable for
the learning progress of every student
 Accountability levels
 States – for achievement of students in the state
 Districts – for achievement of district’s students
 Schools – for achievement of school’s students
 Teachers – for their students’ learning progress
 High-stakes tests: used to hold all levels accountable;
can have adverse consequences if not passed
 Teacher Testing: PRAXIS
36. Teaching in an Era of Reform
“Accountability and high- stakes testing”
 Accountability, meaning students
are required to demonstrate that
they have met specified standards
or that they demonstrate
understanding of the topics they
study as measured by standardized
tests, and
 teachers are being held
responsible for students’