# Introduction to Ohm's Law

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The Current I = V/R, The Voltage V = IR, The Resistance R = V/I, Practical Units, Multiple and Submultiple Units, The Linear Proportion between V and I, Electric Power, Power Dissipation in Resistance, Power Formulas, Choosing a Resistor for a Circuit, Electric Shock, Open-Circuit and Short-Circuit Troubles

1. Chapter
3
Ohm’s Law
Topics Covered in Chapter 3
3-1: The Current I = V/R
3-2: The Voltage V = IR
3-3: The Resistance R = V/I
3-4: Practical Units
3-5: Multiple and Submultiple Units
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2. Topics Covered in Chapter 3
 3-6: The Linear Proportion between V and I
 3-7: Electric Power
 3-8: Power Dissipation in Resistance
 3-9: Power Formulas
 3-10: Choosing a Resistor for a Circuit
 3-11: Electric Shock
 3-12: Open-Circuit and Short-Circuit Troubles
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3. Ohm’s Law
 Ohm's law states that, in an
electrical circuit, the current
passing through most
materials is directly
proportional to the potential
difference applied across
them.
4. 3-1—3-3: Ohm’s Law Formulas
 There are three forms of
Ohm’s Law:
 I = V/R
 V = IR
 R = V/I
 where:
 I = Current
 V = Voltage
 R = Resistance
Fig. 3-4: A circle diagram to help in memorizing the Ohm’s Law formulas V = IR, I = V/R,
and R= V/I. The V is always at the top.
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5. 3-1: The Current I = V/R
 I = V/R
 In practical units, this law
may be stated as:
 amperes = volts / ohms
Fig. 3-1: Increasing the applied voltage V produces more current I to light the bulb with
more intensity.
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6. 3-4: Practical Units
 The three forms of Ohm’s law can be used to define the
practical units of current, voltage, and resistance:
 1 ampere = 1 volt / 1 ohm
 1 volt = 1 ampere × 1 ohm
 1 ohm = 1 volt / 1 ampere
7. 3-4: Practical Units
Applying Ohm’s Law V
? I R
20 V
20 V 4 I = =5A
4
1A
? 12  V = 1A × 12  = 12 V
3A
6V
6V ? R = =2
3A
8. Problem
 Solve for the resistance, R, when V and I are known
a. V = 14 V, I = 2 A, R = ?
b. V = 25 V, I = 5 A, R = ?
c. V = 6 V, I = 1.5 A, R = ?
d. V = 24 V, I = 4 A, R = ?
9. 3-5: Multiple and Submultiple
Units
 Units of Voltage
 The basic unit of voltage is the volt (V).
 Multiple units of voltage are:
 kilovolt (kV)
1 thousand volts or 103 V
 megavolt (MV)
1 million volts or 106 V
 Submultiple units of voltage are:
 millivolt (mV)
1-thousandth of a volt or 10-3 V
 microvolt (μV)
1-millionth of a volt or 10-6 V
10. 3-5: Multiple and Submultiple
Units
 Units of Current
 The basic unit of current is the ampere (A).
 Submultiple units of current are:
 milliampere (mA)
1-thousandth of an ampere or 10-3 A
 microampere (μA)
1-millionth of an ampere or 10-6 A
11. 3-5: Multiple and Submultiple
Units
 Units of Resistance
 The basic unit of resistance is the Ohm (Ω).
 Multiple units of resistance are:
 kilohm (kΩ)
1 thousand ohms or 103 Ω
 Megohm (MΩ)
1 million ohms or 106 Ω
12. Problem
 How much is the current, I, in a 470-kΩ resistor if its
voltage is 23.5 V?
 How much voltage will be dropped across a 40 kΩ
resistance whose current is 250 µA?
13. 3-6: The Linear Proportion
between V and I
 The Ohm’s Law formula I = V/R states that V and I are
directly proportional for any one value of R.
Fig. 3.5: Experiment to show that I increases in direct proportion to V with the same R. (a)
Circuit with variable V but constant R. (b) Table of increasing I for higher V. (c) Graph of V
and I values. This is a linear volt-ampere characteristic. It shows a direct proportion
between V and I.
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14. 3-6: The Linear Proportion
between V and I
 When V is constant:
 I decreases as R increases.
 I increases as R decreases.
 Examples:
 If R doubles, I is reduced by half.
 If R is reduced to ¼, I increases by 4.
 This is known as an inverse relationship.
15. 3-6: The Linear Proportion
between V and I
 Linear Resistance
 A linear resistance has a constant value of ohms. Its R
does not change with the applied voltage, so V and I
are directly proportional.
 Carbon-film and metal-film resistors are examples of
linear resistors.
16. 3-6: The Linear Proportion
between V and I
1 2
4
3
Amperes
+ 4
0 to 9 Volts 2
2
_ 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Volts
The smaller the resistor, the steeper the slope.
17. 3-6: The Linear Proportion
between V and I
 Nonlinear Resistance
 In a nonlinear resistance, increasing the applied V
produces more current, but I does not increase in the
same proportion as the increase in V.
 Example of a Nonlinear Volt–Ampere Relationship:
 As the tungsten filament in a light bulb gets hot, its
resistance increases.
Amperes
Volts
18. 3-6: The Linear Proportion
between V and I
 Another nonlinear resistance is a thermistor.
 A thermistor is a resistor whose resistance value
changes with its operating temperature.
 As an NTC (negative temperature coefficient)
thermistor gets hot, its resistance decreases.
Amperes
Thermistor
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Volts
19. 3-7: Electric Power
 The basic unit of power is the watt (W).
 Multiple units of power are:
 kilowatt (kW):
1000 watts or 103 W
 megawatt (MW):
1 million watts or 106 W
 Submultiple units of power are:
 milliwatt (mW):
1-thousandth of a watt or 10-3 W
 microwatt (μW):
1-millionth of a watt or 10-6 W
20. 3-7: Electric Power
 Work and energy are basically the same, with identical
units.
 Power is different. It is the time rate of doing work.
 Power = work / time.
 Work = power × time.
21. 3-7: Electric Power
 Practical Units of Power and Work:
 The rate at which work is done (power) equals the
product of voltage and current. This is derived as
follows:
 First, recall that:
1 joule 1 coulomb
1 volt = and 1 ampere =
1 coulomb 1 second
22. 3-7: Electric Power
Power = Volts × Amps, or
P=V×I
1 joule 1 coulomb 1 joule
Power (1 watt) = × =
1 coulomb 1 second 1 second
23. 3-7: Electric Power
 Kilowatt Hours
 The kilowatt hour (kWh) is a unit commonly used for
large amounts of electrical work or energy.
 For example, electric bills are calculated in kilowatt
hours. The kilowatt hour is the billing unit.
 The amount of work (energy) can be found by
multiplying power (in kilowatts) × time in hours.
24. 3-7: Electric Power
To calculate electric cost, start with the power:
 An air conditioner operates at 240 volts and 20
amperes.
 The power is P = V × I = 240 × 20 = 4800 watts.
 Convert to kilowatts:
4800 watts = 4.8 kilowatts
 Multiply by hours: (Assume it runs half the day)
energy = 4.8 kW × 12 hours = 57.6 kWh
 Multiply by rate: (Assume a rate of \$0.08/ kWh)
cost = 57.6 × \$0.08 = \$4.61 per day
25. Problem
 How much is the output voltage of a power supply if it
supplies 75 W of power while delivering a current of 5
A?
 How much does it cost to light a 300-W light bulb for
30 days if the cost of the electricity is 7¢/kWh.
26. 3-8: Power Dissipation in
Resistance
 When current flows in a resistance, heat is produced
from the friction between the moving free electrons and
the atoms obstructing their path.
 Heat is evidence that power is used in producing
current.
27. 3-8: Power Dissipation in
Resistance
 The amount of power dissipated in a resistance may be
calculated using any one of three formulas, depending
on which factors are known:
 P = I2×R
 P = V2 / R
 P = V×I
28. Problem
 Solve for the power, P, dissipated by the resistance,
R
a. I = 1 A, R = 100Ω , P = ?
b. I = 20 mA, R = 1 kΩ , P = ?
c. V = 5 V, R = 150Ω , P = ?
d. V = 22.36 V, R = 1 kΩ , P = ?
 How much power is dissipated by an 8-Ω load if the
current in the load is 200 mA?
29. 3-9: Power Formulas
There are three basic power formulas, but each can be
in three forms for nine combinations.
Where:
P = Power V = Voltage I = Current R=Resistance
30. 3-9: Power Formulas
 Combining Ohm’s Law and the Power Formula
 All nine power formulas are based on Ohm’s Law.
V = IR P = VI
I= V
R
 Substitute IR for V to obtain:
 P = VI
 = (IR)I
 = I 2R
31. 3-9: Power Formulas
 Combining Ohm’s Law and the Power Formula
 Substitute V/R for I to obtain:
 P = VI
= V × V/ R
= V2 / R
32. 3-9: Power Formulas
 Applying Power Formulas:
5A P = VI = 20 × 5 = 100 W
20 V 4 2
P = I R = 25 × 4 = 100 W
2
V 400
P= = = 100 W
R 4
33. Problem
 What is the resistance of a device that dissipates 1.2
kW of power when its current is 10 A?
 How much current does a 960 W coffeemaker draw
from the 120 V power line?
 What is the resistance of a 20 W, 12 V halogen lamp?
34. 3-10: Choosing a Resistor
for a Circuit
 Follow these steps when choosing a resistor for a
circuit:
 Determine the required resistance value as R = V / I.
 Calculate the power dissipated by the resistor using any
of the power formulas.
 Select a wattage rating for the resistor that will provide
an adequate cushion between the actual power
dissipation and the resistor’s power rating.
 Ideally, the power dissipation in a resistor should never
be more than 50% of its power rating.
35. Problem
 Determine the required resistance and appropriate
wattage rating of a carbon-film resistor to meet the
following requirements. The resistor has a 54-V IR
drop when its current is 20 mA. The resistors available
have the following wattage ratings:
1/8 W, 1/4 W, 1/2 W, 1 W, and 2 W.
36. 3-10: Choosing a Resistor
for a Circuit
 Maximum Working Voltage Rating
 A resistor’s maximum working voltage rating is the
maximum voltage a resistor can withstand without
internal arcing.
 The higher the wattage rating of the resistor, the higher
the maximum working voltage rating.
37. 3-10: Choosing a Resistor
for a Circuit
 Maximum Working Voltage Rating
 With very large resistance values, the maximum
working voltage rating may be exceeded before the
power rating is exceeded.
 For any resistor, the maximum voltage which produces
the rated power dissipation is:
Vmax = Prating × R
 Exceeding Vmax causes the resistor’s power dissipation
to exceed its power rating
38. 3-11: Electric Shock
 When possible, work only on circuits that have the
power shut off.
 If the power must be on, use only one hand when
making voltage measurements.
 Keep yourself insulated from earth ground.
 Hand-to-hand shocks can be very dangerous because
current is likely to flow through the heart!
39. 3-12: Open-Circuit and
Short-Circuit Troubles
An open circuit has zero current flow.
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40. 3-12: Open-Circuit and
Short-Circuit Troubles
A short circuit has excessive current flow.
As R approaches 0, I approaches .
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