English grammar book grade 5th

Contributed by:
Ms. Dauphina Sharma
An interactive and informative English Grammar book for all children of Grade 5, Simple and Engaging, with explanation and exercises.
1. nt
English workbook for grade 5th
Independent Living Housing
e 1
2. This book is the First Edition of Independent Living
English; a grammar workbook for students of linguistics
studying in grade 5. The book includes 8 parts of figures
of speech viz: Nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives,
adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, interjections, active
and passive voice, prefix and suffix, and poetry for
children with severe Specific Learning Disability. It isn’t
merely an English Grammar book but devotes a great
deal of attention towards the student of linguistics. The
content in this book is as per revised curriculum with
proper explanation alongside texts, illustrations,
exercises and images.
It provides important bulletin points and bold text, key
words, illustrations, exercises, and content related
This book is intended to be useful as it introduces basic
concepts of Grammar in a format which inspires the
reader to use more linguistic concepts.
The aim is to give reasonably careful and precise
number of Major areas of English Grammar that will
provide a foundation for more advance work in
theoretical linguistics.
Writer: Dauphina Sharma
©Independent Living Housing; First edition
@In August 2021
Ind 2
3. Sno. Topic Page
1. Parts of speech 4
2. Noun 5
3. Pronoun 10
4. Verb- tense 19
5. Adjective 27
6. Adverb 33
7. Prepositions 36
8. Conjunction 40
9. Sentences 42
10. Active and Passive 50
11. Prefx and Suffix 54
12. Interjections 56
13. Poem- Ice cream 58
14. Poem- The Sea 61
4. Part
s of
Meaning: a class of words or a category to which a word is
assigned, identified according to the kinds of ideas they
express and the work they do in a sentence.
There are 8 parts of speech in English Workbook.
Nouns Pronouns
ns Adjectives
s Adverbs
– Its 4
5. A Noun is the name of a person, place or thing. The word
thing includes:
1) Those things that we can see, smell, taste, feel and
2) Thise things we can simply think of, but can’t see or
 Gold is a very expensive metal.
 A folk of birds is flying in the sky.
 Charity begins at home.
 Sam and Saz are good boys.
In the above sentences the bold words are the nouns.
Kinds of Noun
There are five kinds of noun:
Common noun Proper noun
Abstract noun Collective noun
Material noun
6. 1. Common noun: name given to any person, place or
thing in general. The name boys refers to all the
boys(Sam, Saz, Kees, Luke, Gamie etc.) but does not
mention any particular boy. Hence, the name ‘boy’ is a
common noun.
Note: we must use an article before a singular Common noun.
2. Proper noun: name given to a particular person, place
or thing. For e.g. Jamie, Goku are the names of the
boys; Chicago and Boston are the names of a city. They
mention a particular place or person. Hence, the name
‘Jamie’ , ‘ Chicago’ are proper nouns.
Note: A proper noun always begins with a capital letter.
Underline the proper nouns in the following setences:
a) Sundays and Saturdays are our weekly holidays.
b) The American cricket team defeated the Australians in
c) Taj Mahal in Agra was made by Mughal empror
d) The gateway of China is in Beijing.
e) The capital city of Japan is Tokyo.
f) The statue of liberty is in New York.
g) America’s national bird is bald eagle.
7. Abstract noun: is something which we can not see,
or touch, but of something that we can think of. They
are names given to some quality, feeling, state, or
Charity is an abstract noun for its name of a quality
which cannot be seen can only be understood.
Similarly like- anger, love, ghost, brave etc.
Abstract nouns formed from adjectives by adding
ty or cy or ness replacing t deletion of
ly y
vanity goodness intellegenc ease
cruelty calmness obidience greed
bravely kindness brilliance worth
honestly softness
misrely weakness
Similarly addition of “tion”, “ing”, “ce”, “ment”.
3. Collective noun: is a name given to a collection of
persons, animals, things taken together as one. For
 an army is a group of soldiers.
 a swarm is a collection of bees.
 a crew is a group of sailors.
 a crowd is a group of people.
 a choir is a group of singers.
 a library of books.
 a bouqet of flowers.
 a class of students
 a team of players.
 a jury of judges.
 a bunch of sticks.
 a band of musicians
 a bundle of letters.
 a packet of cigarettes
8.  a heap of sand
Fill in the blanks with test
a) Indian won the match by four
runs against Australia.
b) The of robbers was caught by the police
c) The ship had a of hundred sailors.
d) There is a of bees living on the tree top.
e) Our consist of thirty members.
f) She bought a of flowers for her boss.
g) My friend left her of keys in the shop.
h) A big gathered near the accident place.
i) A of wolves jumped on a of deer.
j) A of sheep was grazing on the meadows.
k) It is tough to break a of sticks.
l) There are several books in the .
m) The of musicians will play on Monday.
4. Material noun: name of substances or materials:
9. For e.g. gold, iron, steel are material nouns.
A Underline the material nouns in the
following sentences:
a) We get wool from the sheep.
b) Wheat and rice are stable food of
c) Silk is used to make beautiful dresses.
d) Water is a wonderful liquid.
e) We cannot live without water for a few days.
f) Uranium is used to make atom bomb.
g) Mercury is the only metal that is liquid in normal
h) Gold and sliver prices are rising rapidly.
i) Coal is a fossil fuel.
j) Iron and petroleum are found on earth surface.
B. Fill in the blanks with nouns:
1. Dog is a faithful (common
2. The days of are the best. (abstract
3. February is the shortest of the
10. 4. I bought a of bananas. (collective
5. is the president of America. (proper
A Pronoun is used to avoid the repetition of a noun. It can be singular or
For e.g.:
 Elena knows them. kinds
 She comes from an educated family.
 This book belongs to me.
In the above sentences, words in bold are the examples of
Kinds of Pronoun
There are eight kinds of pronoun. They are:
1. Personal pronoun 5. Interrogative
2. Demonstrative pronoun 6. Reflexive pronoun
3. Emphatic pronoun 7. Relative pronoun
4. Indefinite pronoun 8. Reciprocal
1. Personal pronoun: personal pronouns are those
which are used in place of persons, animals, or things.
They are so called, because they stand for the three
persons: the first person, second and the third
First person: I, me, my/ mine,
10 we, us, our/ours
11. Second person: you, your/yours, he, him, his, she, her, hers
Third person: it, its, they, theirs, them
Fill in the blanks with personal pronouns:
1. Look at the buidling. How magnificent looks.
2. like Smita because is honest and
can trust her.
3. Poor Andrew! liked very much.
4. Lata has lost pen is now writing with
12. 5. Please lend me book have lost .
6. Has Sam left? mobile is with me.
7. told you that Mr. John is an honest man.
will not accept any bribery from .
2. Interrogative pronoun: Pronouns used for asking
questions about persons or things are called
interrogative pronouns.
Read these sentences.
1. Who made that noise?
2. What is the matter?
3. Which is your school
4. Whom do you want to
5. Whose is this ring?
The pronouns who, whom and whose are used for asking
questions about persons.
The pronoun which is used for asking questions about
persons or things.
3. Demonstration pronoun:
the pronouns which are used
to point the objects which
they refer to, are known as
demonstrative prououn.
Read these sentences.
 This is my bicycle.
13.  That is my school.
 These are my books.
 Those are your shoes.
In the above sentences, this, these, that, those are used to
point out the object or objects for which they are used.
They are called demonstrative pronouns.
Insert in each of the blanks, the proper form of
interrogative pronoun:
I. did you give the books to?
II. of the cars is yours?
III. of these umbrellas is
IV. called you here?
V. was sitting next to you?
VI. are you reporting to?
VII. do you think will be elected in the
municipality elections?
VIII. do you think I am?
IX. May I know am I speaking to, please?
14. Pick out the demonstrative pronouns in the following
1. These are my hair clips; those are yours.
2. This is the man who was late.
3. This is too little for me.
4. This is mary’s mobile; that is yours.
5. This is my book; that is yours.
6. This is a very old dress.
7. Her face is more charming than that of Rita.
8. These are fresh mangoes.
9. That is not what I asked you to do.
4. Reflexive pronoun: reflexive pronouns are those,
where the action done by their subjects reflect upon
them. Self or selves used as suffi x with the pronoun in
this form.
Read the following sentences:
 I blame myself for my
 We often talk to
ourselves in sleep.
 You will hurt yourself if
you fall from such a
 You will enjoy yourselves
in the picnic.
 He hanged himself to death.
 She cleans herself and goes to the church.
 They always talk about themselves when they
 The dog has hurt itself by scratching.
The pronouns myself, ourselves, yourself, yourselves, himself, herself,
themselves, itself in sentences that refers to the same persons as the
subjects therefore called reflexive pronouns.
15. 5. Emphatic pronoun: pronouns which are used to put
emphasis on a noun or pronoun are known as
emphatic pronouns.
Read the following sentences:
 I myself was present
 We ourselves served
the guest.
 She herself prepared
the food.
 The king himself was
 The castle itself fell.
 He himself doesn’t know
sometimes what he says.
Note: emphatic pronouns and reflexive pronoun are apparently look
similar but emphatic pronouns are used just after the subjects while
reflexive pronouns are used in place of object.
Fill in the blanks with reflexive or emphatic
i. We enjoyed in the picnic.
ii. He is to blame for his failure.
iii. She blamed for her sufferings.
iv. The child hurt
with a knife.
v. Ana dressed for
the show.
16. vi. You asked for it.
vii. We often deceive by telling lies.
viii. The chief minister visited the site of
ix. I heard him saying that.
x. He ruined by taking drugs.
xi. God helps those who help .
xii. I did all the work by .
xiii. They will go to beach tomorrow.
xiv. Don’t worry she can take care of now.
xv. We are responsible for handling emotions.
6. Relative pronoun: the pronouns which are used
to join two sentences are known as relative
Examine the following sentences.
 This is the boy who won
the prize.
 This is the girl whom he
 This is the man whose
son is a doctor.
 The tree which fell has
been removed.
 Those are the books
which I wanted.
 Take anything that you
17. The pronouns who, whom, whose are used to relating to
The prounoun ‘which’ and ‘that’ is used for relating to
Join together each of the following pairs or sentences by a
Relative pronoun:
1. This thief stole the car. The thief
was caught.
2. Coal is found in America. It is
exhausting these days.
3. That boy bowls very well. He is
wearing a blue T-shirt.
4. The boy is lazy. He deserves to be punished.
5. He is a liar. No one trusts him.
7. Indefinite pronoun: the pronouns refer to a person
or a thing in general way are
called indefinite pronouns.
Examine the following
 Some say this and some
say that.
 Many have failed in the
 All were drowned and
 One cannot just do what
one likes.
18.  Many are of the same opinion.
 None can fool Rahul.
 Never look down upon others.
Note: one should always be folllowed by one and not
him or her; as:
 One should have confidence on himself. (wrong)
 One should have confidence on oneself. (right)
8. Reciprocal pronoun: the pronouns that show the
mutual relationship are known as reciprocal pronoun.
Examine the following
 The four dogs are
quarreling with one
 Two men are fighting
with each other.
Note: here ‘one another’ and
each other are mutually related.
Pick out the pronouns in the following sentences,
and decide which type of pronoun is this:
i. Whom were you talking last evening?
ii. He who does not work hard will not be successful in life.
19. iii. This is the boy who stood first in the exam.
iv. He that has not served knows not how to command.
v. Which would you prefer, tea or coffee?
vi. Each of these girls danced beautifully.
vii. All were killed in the accident.
viii. Neither of her brothers could save her.
ix. The cat killed the rat that ate the corn.
x. Those cannot be trusted who tell lies.
Tick the correct answer:
1. What are pronouns?
a) The pronouns which refer to the person or persons.
b) Pronouns are thise which are used in place or persons.
c) A pronoun is a word which is used in place of a noun.
d) The pronouns which refer to the person of or thing spoken.
2. How many types of pronouns are theree?
a) Six c) Seven
b) Seven
Verbs- d) Nine
The verb is a word or a group of words
that tells what is being done and in what
Verb is a word that shows an action.
These actions can be done in anytime:
In the present19i.e., today or now.
20. In the past i.e., yesterday or sometime ago.
In the future i.e., tomorrow.
Present Indefinite Tense
These are actions which are done in the present-everyday
or every week, or every month, or every year. They are
verbs in the present tense.
 I go to school everyday
 I write a letter to my mother every week.
 We go for picnic every Saturday.
 She visits her parents every month.
Past Indefinite Tense
These are the actions which are done in the past, say,
yesterday or a day before, a month ago or a year ago, a
few days ago, or a decade ago, a century ago. They are
verbs in past tense.
 I went to school yesterday.
 I wrote a letter to my
mother last week.
 We went for picnic last
 She visited her parents last
21. Future Indefinite Tense
Future tense refers to actions that will happen in the
 I shall go to school tomorrow.
 I shall write a letter to my mother next week.
 We shall go for picnic next Saturday.
 She will visit her parets next month.
A. Change the following sentences from present to past
1. I watch tele-films in television.
2. Ramy studies tenses in English class.
3. We play cricket in the evening.
4. The soldiers fight for their country.
5. The principle wants to meet you.
B. Change the following from past to present tense:
1. I sent a letter to my mother.
2. Leena was a pretty girl.
3. Humpty Dumpty had a great fall.
4. I saw a movie last evening.
5. Today I woke up early in the morning and did a lot
of work.
Present Continuous Tense
There are certain actions that we are continue doing. These
verbs are said to be present continous tense.
22.  I am going to see a film now.
 He is doing his lessons now.
 She is taking a glass of milk.
 I am eating my breakfast.
 I am buying some important books.
As/is/are + verb + ing = present continuous tense
Past continuous tense
There are certain actions that began and continued in the
past. These verbs are said to be in the past continous
 They were watching the match
all evening.
 I was studying I my study room.
 Shmita was playing in the
 It was raining hard.
 I was taking rest at home.
Future continous tense
There are certain actions that will continue in the future
also. These verb are said to be in future
continous tense.
 I shall be going to see a film
 He will be doing his lessons now.
 Mark will be feeding his pet in the
 Lissy will be reading story books in the library.
test 22
23. Change the following sentences from present continous
tense to past continous tense and future continous tense:
1. They are playing cricket.
2. Ravi is smiling at me.
3. Jane is washing her clothes.
4. Merry is going to school.
5. Ana is doing her lessons.
6. Mother is cooking a dish in the kitchen.
7. Father is reading the newspaper.
8. Rama is coming from school.
9. I am sitting idle.
Present Perfect Tense
There are actions that have been completed at the present
moment. These verbs are said to be in the Present Perfect
 I have done my homework.
 I have read the novel.
 You have done a big mistake.
 The train has arrived in time.
 Monsoon has come late this
Note: we do not mention time
when we write a sentence in present perfect tense
whereas in past tense we may or may not mention
the time.
Past Perfect Tense
24. Past perfect tense indicates that the action had been
completed before another action was commenced.
 The train had left before I
 The patient had dies when the
doctor came.
 I had finished my work before
the bell ring.
 The rain had stopped when the show began.
 You had left for offi ce when I came to your house.
Note: past perfect tene is used to show which of the
two actions happened earlier.
Future Perfect Tense
A verb that shows that the action would have been finished
before another action in the future starts, is said to be in
the Future Perfect Tense.
 When you come to my house
I shall have finished the
 When I reach thirty I shall
have established myself in
 When I come to offi ce
tomorrow the boss will
have reached.
 I still have reached home
long before you come.
 He will have finished his work long before evening.
 She will have completed her graduation shen she is
25. Skill
A. Fill in the blanks with a verb in Present Perfect Tense.
1. They have their best
to win her.(try)
2. Ramya has me these
books. (give)
3. April has to our place for the vacation.
4. I have the best use of the time. (make)
5. Sam has the best game of the league.
B. Join the sentences by using past perfect tense. One has
been done.
1. The train left. I arrived late.
When I arrived the train had left.
2. I finished my work. Then you came.
3. I reached the school. The bell rang later.
4. The show started. We came late.
Present Perfect Continuous Tense
Present perfect contiuous tense is used for an action which
began sometime in the past and is still continuing.
 He has been working since twelve o’ clock.
 They have been playing cards since morning.
 They have been building the bridge for several
 She has been teaching in this school for quite
 I have been undergoing the pain since last two
Past Perfect Continuous Tense
Past perfect continuous tense is sused for an action which
began before a certain point in the past and continued up
at that time.
 He had been writing a book at that time.
 She had been singing in the AIR when she got
 They had been studying in class four when their
grandmother died.
 She had been teaching us English Grammar then.
 I had been looking for teacher who could teach me
English Grammar at that time.
Future Perfect Continuous Tense
Future perfect continuous tense is used for actions which
will be continued over a definite period of time in the
27.  By next month we shall have been staying in our
new house.
 She will have been teaching in this school for the
next twenty years.
 Tomorrow, at ths time, I shall have been reaching
 By the end of october people here will have been
wearing sweaters.
The sentences below are wrong.
Correct them by using the correct
1. It is raining since morning.
2. I will tell you something when you will come home.
3. The train started before the passengers got in.
4. I have done my homework yesterday.
5. I did my work since morning.
6. I shall have been doing my homework tomorrow.
7. Nany has phoned me last week.
8. I am not going to offi ce since last week.
28. 9. The girl is singing very well in the morning.
10. The boy’s shoes are dirty because they played in mud.
An adjective is a word which modifies a
noun or pronoun by adding something. It
is used to describe a noun or a
pronoun and tells about them.
 Ariel was a great warrior.
 Seren is a good girl.
 Lotus is a very beautiful flower.
 There are twenty-five students in our class.
 Mary gave me this pen in my birthday.
Adjectives are of six kinds:
1. Adjective of Quality
When an adjective describes the quality of someone or
something, it is called the adjective of quality.
 Tulip is a beautiful flower.
 Ramy is an honest girl.
29.  Detroit is a nice place.
 The old man carried a heavy bag.
2. Demonstrative adjectives
When an adjective points to a particular person or
thing, it is called as the demonstrative adjective.
 This car is mine, that car is
 These mangoes are ripe, those
mangoes are raw.
3. Adjective of number
When an adjective describes the number definite or
indefinite of person or thing or in what order they
stand, it is called as the adjective of number.
 December is tha last month of the year.
 I bought two dresses for christmas.
 Many people crowded near the accident.
 All men are mortal.
Note: adjectives of number includes definite numeral
adjectives as well as indefinite numeral adjectives.
4. Adjective of Quantity
30. Skill
When an adjective describes the quantity of a thing or
person, it is known as the adjective of quantity.
 One should have suffi cient water everyday.
 He had enough rice for lunch.
 Give me some water for I
am thirsty.
 He did not take much
interest in his work.
5. Interrogative adjective
Interrogative adjectives, are used before nouns to ask
 What colour is your bike?
 What train goes to banglore from here?
 Whose horse won the first prize?
 Which way shall we go?
Note: an interrogative adjective will always come
before a noun.
6. Possessive adjective
Adjectives of possession signify by telling whose. It
means, belonging to whom.
 Sheldon is polishing his
 Invite your friends for the
31. Skill
Pick out the adjectives in the following sentences by
underlining them and mention what
kind of adjective each one is, in the
space provided:
I. Few men have honesty these days.
II. I do not like those who are
III. There are thirty girls in this class.
IV. What time will you come home?
V. Nancy is doing her homework.
VI. These men belong to the same village.
VII. Which CD contains beautiful pictures?
VIII. There is a little hope of her success.
IX. He made several attempts to meet the priniciple.
32. X. The blind man could not cross the road.
XI. A bad workman blames his tools.
XII. She respects her parents.
Do not waste your time.
33. rich richer richest
strong strong strongest
noble nobler noblest
happy Comparati
happier happiest
Positive ve Superlative
proper most proper
pretty prettier prettiest
early earlier earliest
good better best
late latter last
far farther farthest
34. A. Give the comparative and superlative degrees of the
following adjectives:
Comparative Superlative
Diffi cult
B. Fill in the blank with correct degree of adjectives.
1. The cheetah is the land animal. (fast)
2. Karan is than Gianella.
3. Jupiter is the planet. (big)
4. Alisha is than penny. (bad)
5. His house is than her. (far)
6. Ashoka was king. (kind)
erb 34
35. An adverb can be defined as a word that adds meaning to a
verb and tells us how a thing is done, what is done, where
it is done, how often or why it is done.
Read the following examples:
 The fox is very clever.
 The tortoise walked slowly.
There are six kinds of adverbs.
1. Adverb of Manner tells us how an action has been
performed, as:
 The master treated the servant cruelly.
 The thief crept into the house quietly.
2. Adverb of Place tells us where the action has taken
place, as:
 God is presented everywhere.
 The ring was found nowhere.
3. Adverb of Time tells us when the action has taken
place, as:
 I wake up early.
 He has not come home yet.
4. Adverb of Frequency shows how often an action
has been done, as:
 He never tells a lie.
 She rarely speaks to strangers.
5. Adverb of Degree show how much and what extent
a thing is done, as:
 Your logic is not entirely wrong.
 I am extremely sorry for the inconvinience you
are facing.
6. Adverb of Reasons show why an action is
 He ran fast in order to catch the train.
36.  I could not go because I was ill.
 The school was closed on account of Christmas .
Positive Comparative Superlative
Hard Harder Hardest
Neatly More neatly Most neatly
Well Better Best
Slowly More slowly Most slowly
Soon Sooner Soonest
Gladly More gladly Most gladly
Much More Most
Note: in general adverb of time, adverbs of place,
frequency, degree, cannot be compared. Adverb of
manner is mostly compared.
test 36
37. Pick out the Adverbs in each of the following sentences and
mention to which kind each belongs:
1. The boy wrote his test badly.
2. Every soldier fights bravely.
3. Our team played well and won
the game easily.
4. The tortoise ran slowly and steadily and won the race.
5. John worked hard and did the exercises carefully
Use the adverbs given in the brackets in the suitable
place and rewrite the following sentences:
1. He goes to see movies.
2. Ana disobeys her elders.
3. She goes to the temple.
4. I see Mary these days in the park.
5. He comes to my house in the evening.
Tick the correct answer:
1. How many adverbs are ?
a) four c) six
b) five d) seven
38. 2. Adverbs Manners means?
Prepositio .
Prepositions link nouns, pronouns and phrases to the other
words in sentence. A preposition is placed before a noun or
a pronoun to show the relation with the person or thing
denoted by it.
Read the following examples:
 Hanah is sitting between Tara and Sherin.
 The tree is in front of the house.
 He is not at home.
 The box is kept on the table.
Uses of different prepositions
 Look at me.
 Do not laugh at anyone.
 The girl is standing at the
 The train has arrived at the station.
 He deals in silk.
39.  He is weak in
 The letter is in
 Have faith in
 Rely on your own effort.
 He is bent on doing this mischeif.
 The bus moves on the roads.
 I object to your
 I prefer tea to coffee.
 I go to school
 I am obliged to you.
 I am fond of you.
 She is proud of you.
 He died of typhoid.
 Take care of your
 I can’t write with this pen.
 He is annoyed with me at my joke.
 He is busy with his work.
 I am happy with what I have.
 I feel bad for the
40.  I am anxious for
 He is fit for the
 He asked for
 The king ruled over a vast empire.
 They quarreled over a trifle matter.
 Do not cry over split milk.
 We inquired
about her
 Did you hear
about the
 It is ten o’clock by my watch.
 She was accompanied by her
 Come back home by 7 o’ clock.
 The poem was written by
 He is different
from his
 He is suffering
 The frog jumped into water.
41.  The terrorists broke into the house.
 Do not sleep
under a tree at
 Mr. Damon is
working under
Fill in the blanks with prepositions.
i. This cloth is superior that.
ii. She prays God every morning.
iii. Smoking is injurious health.
iv. Be careful what you say.
v. She was kind us all.
vi. You can’t mix oil water.
vii. She acted according my
viii. Are you not ashamed your
ix. Learn this poem heart.
x. I agree your proposal.
xi. She invited all her friends tea.
42. xii. She has replied my letter.
xiii. Do not make fun others.
xiv. Sleep is necessary health.
xv. She is not aware this.
Underline the prepositions in these sentences.
1. Saturday and Sunday are holidays of the week.
2. The Statue of Liberty is a statue in New York.
3. The Bible is the holy book of the
4. The frog jumped into the well.
5. Get out of my sight or I will beat you.
6. The old mn walked with help of a stick.
A conjunction is a word used to connect words, clauses or
sentences. Conjunctions are joining words and are also
known as linkess.
Look at the following sentences:
 Supriya is honest. Supriya is
Supriya is honest and kind.
 Reena is beautiful. Reena is
Reena is beautiful but cruel.
 Work hard. You will fail.
Work hard else you will fail.
There are two kinds of conjunctions:
Co- ordinate Subordinate
conjunctions conjunctions
1. Co-ordinate conjunction
A coordinate conjunction joins two clauses or
statements or equal rank, importance and position.
The main coordinate conjunctions are and, but, or,
either- or, neither, nor, so, yet, for etc.
Read the following sentences:
 You can have juice or coffee.
 Selena worked hard and
topped the class.
 Gomez was ill yet she went
to school.
2. Subordinate conjunction
A subordinate conjunction joins one subordinate
clause to another main clause for its meaning. It joins
two clauses or statements of unequal rank/importance
and position.
The main subordinate cojunctions are after, as,
because, although, before, than, though, if, until, that,
while etc.
Read the following sentences:
 Gianella did not go to the offi ce
as she was ill.
44.  Although he was ill he went to school.
 If you run fast, you can catch the train.
Fill in the blanks with appropriate conjunctions.
 You shall be surprised you fail.
 I shall not tell him he asks me to do so.
 He is contented he is very poor.
 I eat . I am hungry.
 He was frightened he heard the noise.
 You have heard I lost my purse.
 I know he has gone.
 Wait here I return.
 Trust in God do the right.
 We must eat die.
 Catch me you can.
 He is happy he is poor.
 I will like he is honest.
 Tom goes to school his sister
stays at home.
 Anne is tall Mary is taller.
A sentence is a group of words
arranged in a specific order, which makes a complete
45. Read the following group of words:
 Sings well very Samy
 A fruit mango is a
 Play ball with children
 Rails the train on runs
These groups of words do not make any sense. Therefore,
they are not sentences.
They will make sense only when arranged in a proper order,
 Samy sings very well.
 A mango is a fruit.
 Children play with ball.
 The train runs on rails.
These groups of words make sense and they are giving
some meaning, so they are sentences.
 A sentence always begins with a capital letter.
 The words of a sentence are placed in a proper
 There must be a verb in a sentence.
 A sentence always ends with a full stop, a question
mark or an exclamation mark.
Arrange the following words in the order that they make
complete sense.
1. Shortest february mongh is the year of the
2. Holiday is a Sunday
3. Moon at night sky shines in the sky
46. 4. Church Sunday goes he to every
5. Seldom barking bite dogs
6. Twenty-five students there are my class in
7. Beautiful rose flower is a
8. Sun earth revolves around the
9. India capital city Delhi the is
10. Go to children study to school.
Read the following groups of words.
1. of gold 4. the new pen 7. to my
2. dancing birds 5. in the west 8. crying baby
3. under the chair 6. playing children
these groups of words do not make the sentence complete.
They are phrases. They do not have a subject and
A sentence must have a subject about whom we speak, and
a predicate what we speak.
Thus a sentence have two parts- a Subject and a
47. The subject is that part of a sentence which names the
person, place, thing or idea that is doing something. The
subject are generally nouns, pronouns, determiners or
For example:
 The postman brings letters for us.
 Ana and Christian are friends.
 Bella is a beautiful lady.
The predicate is that part of a sentence
that tells something about the subject.
This is the remaining part of the
sentence after subject.
For example:
 Rosy is reading a novel.
 She is good doctor.
 The dog is a faithful
Observe the following:
Subject Predicate
 Mary is eating sugar in the
 Pussy cat frightened the little
 The lion is the king of animals.
 Jack and Jill went up the hill.
 The mouse ran up the clock.
48. Subject of a sntence usually comes before the predicate,
but sometimes the subject is put after the predicate.
Observe the following:
Predicate Subject
 There goes the principal of our
 What a nice place Singapore is!
 In the little house lived seven dwarfs.
 Down came the rain.
 Inside the box where hundreds of tiny balls.
 Here comes the train.
 Here goes the man who has killed
his wife.
 In the neighbour lives a snake charmer.
 What a big city Delhi is!
 Sad are the moments of seperation.
Divide each of the following sentences into subjects and
a) Nature is the best medicine.
b) The woodcutter’s axe fell into the water.
49. c) The wind is blowing hard.
d) The tiger is our national animal.
e) Time is the best healer.
f) How refreshing this place is!
g) Unlucky are those children who lose their mothers in
their childhood.
h) Out of the cave came the lion.
i) Into the streets poured the crowd.
Write 10 sentences about your friends and mention the
subject and predicate in each sentence.
Sentences are of five kinds according to their meaning and
i. Assertive Sentence: an assertive sentence is a
sentence which makes a statement or an assertion. An
assertive sentence ends with a full stop.
For example:
 Rana is a good boy.
 Rana reads in class Vth.
50. ii. Interrogative Sentence: an interrogative sentence is a
sentence that asks question. Interrogative sentences
end with a question mark.
For example:
 Where are your glasses?
 Why are you standing here?
iii. Imperative Sentence: an imperative sentence is a
sentence that expresses a command or a request.
Imperative sentences end with a full stop.
For example:
 Johnny! Open your mouth! (command)
 Please lend me your book. (request)
iv. An Exclamatory Sentence: an exclamatory sentence is
a sentence that expresses a strong feeling or sudden
remark. Exclamatory sentences end with an
exclamation mark.
For example:
 How naughty your brother is!
 How I wonder what you are!
v. Optative Sentence: an optative sentence makes a
prayer, a wish or a desire. Optative sentences end
with a full stop or an exclamation mark.
For example:
 May you win the match! (prayer)
 Would that I were the Prime Minister! (wish)
Find out the types of the following sentence:
51. a) How do you do?
b) May you live long!
c) Your good wishes are always with me.
d) Please lend me your pen.
e) I do not want to do this.
f) Please, be silent.
g) Never judge a person from his looks.
h) Are they planning to go out?
i) We should tell the truth.
j) Who is at the gate.
k) She goes to school everyday.
l) Oh my god! I am so surpised to see you here!
Rewrite each of the sentences putting punctuation marks.
1. What a pleasant whether it is
2. There is no happiness without health in life
3. Please lend me this book for a week
4. Have you taken your breakfast
5. I do not kill an animal
6. Honestly is the best policy
52. 7. How beautiful Burj Khalifa looks in a moon-lit night.
Answer the following in one sentence:
a) What are sentences.
b) An interrogative sentence always ends with?
c) A sentence always begins with a letter.
d) The types of sentences are
e) The sentences are of
parts, naming
and ,
The hunter killed the deer.
The deer was killed by the hunter.
What is the difference between these two sentences?
In first sentence, the subject (hunter) is the
doer of the action. The subject of the verb
acts or is active. The verb killed therefore,
said to be in the Active voice.
53. In second sentence, the subject (deer) is the receiver of the
action. The subject of the verb is acted upon. The verb was
killed is therefore, said to be in Passive voice.
 The Active voice denotes that the subject of the verb is
thedoer of the action or is active.
 The Passive voice denotes that the subject of the verb is the
receiver of the action or is passive.
For example:
Subject Object
A man killed a snake.
Subject Object
A snake was killed by a
So, we see that when a sentence is changed from the Actve
form to the Passive, the object of the active verb becomes
the suject of the passive verb.
Simple present tense:
Active: I see a golden duck.
Passive: A golden duck is seen.
Active: Cat catch rats.
Passive: Rats are caught by cats.
Present continous tense:
Active: A mother is feeding a baby.
Passive: A baby is being fed by the
Active: Children are working hard
these days.
Passive: Hard work is being done by the children.
Present perfect tense:
Active: The cats have caught all the rats.
Passive: All the rats have been caught by cats.
Active: Shelly has completed the word in time.
Passive: The work has been completed by Shelly in time.
Simple past tense:
Active: He sold his bike.
Passive: His bike was sold by him.
Active: Father scolded the son.
Passive: The son was scolded by the
Past continuous tense:
Active: Katherine was singing a song.
Passive: A song was being sung by Katherine.
55. Active: They were throwing stones at the dogs.
Passive: Stones were being thrown by them at the dogs.
Past perfect tense:
Active: Someone had stolen my mobile.
Passive: My mobile had been stolen.
Simple future tense:
Active: The teacher will punish you for coming later.
Passive: You will be punished by the teacher for coming
Active: I shall give her this pen.
Passive: She will be given this pen by me.
Interrogative sentences:
Active: Who broke this flower vase?
Passive: By whom was this flower vase broken?
Active: Who will help her?
Passive: By whom will she be helped?
Change the following sentences from Active to the Passive
a) Mr. Golmes teaches us German.
b)Jane bought some good books.
c) The peon rang the bell.
d)Granny told us a story.
56. e) Who taught you swimming?
f) Who killed the lion?
g)Everybody laughed at the clown.
h)Ramy should us the village.
Change the following sentence Passive to Active voice.
a) He was praised by his men.
b) She will be pardoned by his father.
c) By whom will she be saved?
d) He was loved by all his friends.
e) The small boy was knocked down by a car.
f) He was laughed at by all his friends.
g) The car will be driven by me.
Prefix and Suffix
Before we continue, let’s start by looking at some key
A base word is a word that can have prefixes or suffixes
added to it.
A prefix is a letter or set of letters added to the beginning of the
A suffix is a letter or set of letters added to the end of a
57.  Agree- agreement, disagree, agreeable.
 Believe- believable, believer, unbelievable.
 Care- careful, uncaring, careless.
 Decide- decision, indecision, decisive.
 Excite- excitement, excitable, unexcited, exciting.
 Friend- friendly, unfriendly, befriend.
 Love- lovely, unloved, lover.
 Use- usable, useless, user, misuse.
 View- review, preview, overview.
Write the base word on the blank
1. Antithesis
2. Disappear
3. Enslave
4. Impossible
5. Unfair
Write the base word on the blank provided.
1. Description
2. Education
3. Excitable
4. Explsion
5. Imaginary
6. Relaxation
7. Replacement
8. Thankful
9. Written
Write which word is being
1. To heat before:
58. 2. To not like:
3. To do the opposite of tie:
4. To write again:
5. To pay before:
6. To do the opposite of pack:
7. To use again:
Add a prefix (pre, un, re, dis) to the baseword to create a
new word.
1. play
2. honest
3. do
4. known
5. heat
6. pay
7. fund
8. read
9. true
10. use
11. obey
12. school
13. charge
14. Inter agree
Interjections are words used to express some sudden
feeling or emotion. They are not grammatically related to
other words in a sentence. Interjections are usually
followed by an exclamation mark (!)
59. Interjections can be used as a part of direct quote. They
are more commonly used in formal language than informal
Here are some examples:
 Joy: Hurrah! I have passed the exam!
 Grief: Alas! The city has been captured!
 Surprise: Ha! Is that all you have to offer?
 Approval: Bravo! You have done a good job!
 Relief: Whew! I can’t believe we actually finished the
 Fear: Ahh! The ghost got me!
 Disgust: Eww! That tastes so bad.
 Pain: Ouch! That hurt. Stop punching me!
60. Underline the interjective in the following
1. Super! I am excited to go to party with
2. Yippee! It’s finally summer vacation!
3. Oh no! I left my baseball glove at the field.
4. Oh! I completely forgot to tell you about the test
5. Gosh! I can’t believe I forgot to do my homework.
6. Alas! We have to stop playing and start studying.
Rewrite each sentence with an interjection to add
excitement and drama.
1. The magic trick was amazing!
Unbelievable! That magic trick was amazing!
2. I fell over and ripped my pants.
3. This is the exact shirt I wanted to get!
4. I had no idea you were related to my family!
5. I cannot attend your wedding this summer.
61. Poem – ice cream man
What is cold, sweet and creamy, and
wonderful to eat? Everyone’s favorite
treat especially on a hot summer day is
an ice cream! And everyone’s favorite
person might just be ice- cream man!
62. When summers in the city,
And brick’s a blaze of heat,
The Ice-cream Man with his little
Goes trundling down the street.
Beneath his round umbrella,
Oh, what a joyful sight,
To see him fill the cones with
Of cooling brown and white.
Vanilla, chocolate, strawberry,
Or chilly things to drink
From bottles full of frosty fizz,
Green, white, orange, or pink.
~Rachel Field
New words
Blaze: bright flame or fire
Trundling: moving on small board wheels.
Mounds: head, pile
63. Answer the following:
1. In which season is ice-cream popular?
2. Who feels joyful on seeing the Ice-cream Man?
3. Name the different falvours of ice cream you know.
4. Which flavour do you prefer in ice-cream?
List as many summer activities as you can.
64. Poe
The waves are rough,
The sea is angry.
The sand is so white,
The enormous big whale wallows in the sea,
The tiny snail clung to a rock.
Then huge wave came,
Crashing like thunder!
The wind blows hard
The sand stings,
So do the bluebottles.
Then its calm again.
65. Skill test
Answer the following:
1. Choose the correct sentence summarizing the poem.
a) The sea was rough, and it made the day at the beach terrible.
b) The sea was rough, and it brought all kinds of cretatures into the
rock pools.
c) The day was lovely, the sea was calm and they had a lovely time.
2. “The sea is angry” is an example of:
a) Noun
b) Pronoun
c) Adjective
d) Tenses
3. What sea animals does this poem mention?
4. Give two synonyms for the word ‘big’ that are in the
5. Re-write the following sentences with correct
 i hate bubble-gum
 no dont eat my cake
 what is your favourite meal
 god bless africa
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