Contributed by:

Worldwide, policymakers are placing increasing demands on schools and their teachers to use effective research-informed practices. In New Zealand, a collaborative knowledge-building strategy—The Iterative Best Evidence Synthesis Program—has been implemented at the policy level. Drawing on findings from the mathematics Best Evidence Synthesis Iteration, and more recent research studies, this paper offers ten principles of effective pedagogical approaches that facilitate learning for diverse learners. In examining the links between pedagogical practices and a range of social and academic student outcomes we draw on the histories, cultures, language, and practices for the New Zealand context and comparable international contexts.

Keywords: mathematics pedagogy, effective teaching, a community of learners, tasks, discourse, teacher knowledge.

Keywords: mathematics pedagogy, effective teaching, a community of learners, tasks, discourse, teacher knowledge.

1.
Journal of Mathematics Education © Education for All

December 2009, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp.147-164

Characteristics of Effective Teaching of

Mathematics: A View from the West

Glenda Anthony and Margaret Walshaw

Massey University, New Zealand

Worldwide, policy makers are placing increasing demands on schools and

their teachers to use effective research-informed practices. In New Zealand a

collaborative knowledge building strategy—The Iterative Best Evidence

Synthesis Program—has been implemented at policy level. Drawing on

findings from the mathematics Best Evidence Synthesis Iteration, and more

recent research studies, this paper offers ten principles of effective

pedagogical approaches that facilitate learning for diverse learners. In

examining the links between pedagogical practices and a range of social and

academic student outcomes we draw on the histories, cultures, language, and

practices for the New Zealand context and comparable international contexts.

Key words: mathematics pedagogy, effective teaching, community of learners,

tasks, discourse, teacher knowledge.

Mathematics, it is widely understood, plays a key role in shaping how

individuals deal with the various spheres of private, social, and civil life. Yet

today, as in the past, many students struggle with mathematics and become

disaffected as they continually confront obstacles to engagement. In order to

break this pattern it is imperative, therefore, that we understand what effective

mathematics teaching looks like. Many have looked to research to seek

evidence about what kinds of pedagogical practices contribute to desirable

student outcomes (see government funded reports by, for example, Anthony &

Walshaw, 2007; Doig, McCrae, & Rowe, 2003; Ingvarson, Beavis, Bishop,

Peck, & Ellsworth, 2004; National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008).

Hiebert and Grouws (2007), in their synthesis of international research, have

argued for a more detailed, richer, and coherent knowledge base to inform

policy and practice.

In a response to Hiebert and Grouws, we present findings from recent

research syntheses (Anthony & Walshaw, 2007; 2008), complemented by

evidence from recent international studies (e.g., Lester, 2007; Martin, 2007).

December 2009, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp.147-164

Characteristics of Effective Teaching of

Mathematics: A View from the West

Glenda Anthony and Margaret Walshaw

Massey University, New Zealand

Worldwide, policy makers are placing increasing demands on schools and

their teachers to use effective research-informed practices. In New Zealand a

collaborative knowledge building strategy—The Iterative Best Evidence

Synthesis Program—has been implemented at policy level. Drawing on

findings from the mathematics Best Evidence Synthesis Iteration, and more

recent research studies, this paper offers ten principles of effective

pedagogical approaches that facilitate learning for diverse learners. In

examining the links between pedagogical practices and a range of social and

academic student outcomes we draw on the histories, cultures, language, and

practices for the New Zealand context and comparable international contexts.

Key words: mathematics pedagogy, effective teaching, community of learners,

tasks, discourse, teacher knowledge.

Mathematics, it is widely understood, plays a key role in shaping how

individuals deal with the various spheres of private, social, and civil life. Yet

today, as in the past, many students struggle with mathematics and become

disaffected as they continually confront obstacles to engagement. In order to

break this pattern it is imperative, therefore, that we understand what effective

mathematics teaching looks like. Many have looked to research to seek

evidence about what kinds of pedagogical practices contribute to desirable

student outcomes (see government funded reports by, for example, Anthony &

Walshaw, 2007; Doig, McCrae, & Rowe, 2003; Ingvarson, Beavis, Bishop,

Peck, & Ellsworth, 2004; National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008).

Hiebert and Grouws (2007), in their synthesis of international research, have

argued for a more detailed, richer, and coherent knowledge base to inform

policy and practice.

In a response to Hiebert and Grouws, we present findings from recent

research syntheses (Anthony & Walshaw, 2007; 2008), complemented by

evidence from recent international studies (e.g., Lester, 2007; Martin, 2007).

2.
148 Characteristics of Effective Teaching of Mathematics: A View from the West

Collectively, these reviews are closely aligned with recent mathematics

initiatives within western education systems that shift teaching and learning

away from a traditional emphasis on learning rules for manipulating symbols.

Initiatives like Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (PSSM)

(National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2000) focus on developing

communities of practice in which students are actively engaged with

Effective pedagogy within such communities is at the heart of this

paper. We ask: What does research tell us about the characteristics of effective

pedagogy in the west? From our investigations that have helped us answer that

question, we have developed a set of principles that underpin the kinds of

pedagogical approaches found to develop mathematical capability and

disposition within an effective learning community. The ten principles of

effective mathematics pedagogy should not be taken in isolation but

interpreted as part of a complex web of factors that can affect student learning.

They incorporate elements of practice related to the classroom community,

classroom discourse, the kinds of tasks that enhance students‘ thinking, and the

role of teacher knowledge (see Figure 1). We discuss each of these principles,

in turn, in the following sections.

Figure 1. Principles of effective pedagogy of mathematics

Collectively, these reviews are closely aligned with recent mathematics

initiatives within western education systems that shift teaching and learning

away from a traditional emphasis on learning rules for manipulating symbols.

Initiatives like Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (PSSM)

(National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2000) focus on developing

communities of practice in which students are actively engaged with

Effective pedagogy within such communities is at the heart of this

paper. We ask: What does research tell us about the characteristics of effective

pedagogy in the west? From our investigations that have helped us answer that

question, we have developed a set of principles that underpin the kinds of

pedagogical approaches found to develop mathematical capability and

disposition within an effective learning community. The ten principles of

effective mathematics pedagogy should not be taken in isolation but

interpreted as part of a complex web of factors that can affect student learning.

They incorporate elements of practice related to the classroom community,

classroom discourse, the kinds of tasks that enhance students‘ thinking, and the

role of teacher knowledge (see Figure 1). We discuss each of these principles,

in turn, in the following sections.

Figure 1. Principles of effective pedagogy of mathematics

3.
Glenda Anthony & Margaret Walshaw 149

The principles we have developed are based on recognition that

classroom teaching is a complex activity. The classroom learning community

is neither static nor linear. Rather, it is nested within an evolving network

involving the school, the wider education system, and the home and local

community. The idea that teaching sits within a nested system draws its

inspiration from the work of post-Vygotskian activity theorists such as

Davydov and Radzikhovskii (1985). The understanding of a close relationship

between social processes and conceptual development also forms the basis of

Lave and Wenger‘s (1991) well-known social practice theory, in which the

notions of ―a community of practice‖ and ―the connectedness of knowing‖ are

central features. In that theoretical framework, individual and collective

knowledge emerge and evolve within the dynamics of the spaces people share

and within which they participate.

In this paper our focus will be on the classroom as a community of

practice. Our starting point is in the understanding that teachers who foster

positive student outcomes do so through their beliefs in the rights of all

students to have access to mathematics education in a broad sense—

understanding of the big ideas of curriculum and an appreciation of their value

and application in everyday life. Additionally, we claim that effective

mathematics pedagogy:

1) acknowledges that all students, irrespective of age, can develop

positive mathematical identities and become powerful mathematical learners.

2) is based on interpersonal respect and sensitivity and is responsive to

the multiplicity of cultural heritages, thinking processes, and realities found in

everyday classrooms.

3) is focused on optimizing a range of desirable academic outcomes that

include conceptual understanding, procedural fluency, strategic competence,

and adaptive reasoning.

4) is committed to enhancing a range of social outcomes within the

mathematics classroom that will contribute to the holistic development of

students for productive citizenship.

Classroom Community

An Ethic of Care: Caring Classroom Communities that Are Focused on

Mathematics Goals Help Develop Students’ Mathematical Identities and

The principles we have developed are based on recognition that

classroom teaching is a complex activity. The classroom learning community

is neither static nor linear. Rather, it is nested within an evolving network

involving the school, the wider education system, and the home and local

community. The idea that teaching sits within a nested system draws its

inspiration from the work of post-Vygotskian activity theorists such as

Davydov and Radzikhovskii (1985). The understanding of a close relationship

between social processes and conceptual development also forms the basis of

Lave and Wenger‘s (1991) well-known social practice theory, in which the

notions of ―a community of practice‖ and ―the connectedness of knowing‖ are

central features. In that theoretical framework, individual and collective

knowledge emerge and evolve within the dynamics of the spaces people share

and within which they participate.

In this paper our focus will be on the classroom as a community of

practice. Our starting point is in the understanding that teachers who foster

positive student outcomes do so through their beliefs in the rights of all

students to have access to mathematics education in a broad sense—

understanding of the big ideas of curriculum and an appreciation of their value

and application in everyday life. Additionally, we claim that effective

mathematics pedagogy:

1) acknowledges that all students, irrespective of age, can develop

positive mathematical identities and become powerful mathematical learners.

2) is based on interpersonal respect and sensitivity and is responsive to

the multiplicity of cultural heritages, thinking processes, and realities found in

everyday classrooms.

3) is focused on optimizing a range of desirable academic outcomes that

include conceptual understanding, procedural fluency, strategic competence,

and adaptive reasoning.

4) is committed to enhancing a range of social outcomes within the

mathematics classroom that will contribute to the holistic development of

students for productive citizenship.

Classroom Community

An Ethic of Care: Caring Classroom Communities that Are Focused on

Mathematics Goals Help Develop Students’ Mathematical Identities and

4.
150 Characteristics of Effective Teaching of Mathematics: A View from the West

From research studies we find that effective teachers facilitate learning

by truly caring about their students‘ engagement (Noddings, 1995). They work

at developing interrelationships that create spaces for students to develop their

mathematical and cultural identities. They have high yet realistic expectations

about enhancing students‘ capacity to think, reason, communicate, reflect upon

and critique their own practice, and they provide students opportunities to ask

why the class is doing certain things and with what effect (Watson, 2002). The

relationships that develop in the classroom become a resource for developing

students‘ mathematical competencies and identities.

Students want to learn in a ‗togetherness‘ environment (Boaler, 2008;

Ingram, 2008). Teachers can make everyone feel included by respecting and

valuing the mathematics and the cultures that students bring to the classrooms.

Ensuring that all students feel safe allows every student to get involved.

However, it is important that the caring relationships that are developed do not

encourage students to become overly dependent on their teachers. Effective

teachers promote classroom relationships that allow students to think for

themselves, to ask questions, and to take intellectual risks (Angier & Povey,

Everyday classroom routines play an important role in the development of

students‘ mathematical thinking. Effective teachers make sure that all students

are provided with opportunities to struggle with mathematics for themselves.

For example, simply inviting students to contribute a response to a

mathematical problem may not achieve anything more than cooperation from

students. Teachers need to provide students with expectations and obligations

concerning who might speak, when and in what form, and what listeners might

do (Stipek et al., 1998).

Teachers are the most important resource for developing students‘

mathematical identities (Cobb & Hodge, 2002). They influence the ways in

which student‘s think of themselves in the classroom (Walshaw, 2004). In

establishing equitable arrangements, effective teachers pay attention to the

different needs that result from different home environments, different

languages, and different capabilities and perspectives. The positive attitude

that develops raises students‘ comfort level, enlarges their knowledge base,

and gives them greater confidence in their capacity to learn and make sense of

mathematics. Confident in their own understandings, students will be more

willing to consider new ideas presented by the teacher, to consider other

students‘ ideas and assess the validity of other approaches, and to persevere in

the face of mathematical challenge.

From research studies we find that effective teachers facilitate learning

by truly caring about their students‘ engagement (Noddings, 1995). They work

at developing interrelationships that create spaces for students to develop their

mathematical and cultural identities. They have high yet realistic expectations

about enhancing students‘ capacity to think, reason, communicate, reflect upon

and critique their own practice, and they provide students opportunities to ask

why the class is doing certain things and with what effect (Watson, 2002). The

relationships that develop in the classroom become a resource for developing

students‘ mathematical competencies and identities.

Students want to learn in a ‗togetherness‘ environment (Boaler, 2008;

Ingram, 2008). Teachers can make everyone feel included by respecting and

valuing the mathematics and the cultures that students bring to the classrooms.

Ensuring that all students feel safe allows every student to get involved.

However, it is important that the caring relationships that are developed do not

encourage students to become overly dependent on their teachers. Effective

teachers promote classroom relationships that allow students to think for

themselves, to ask questions, and to take intellectual risks (Angier & Povey,

Everyday classroom routines play an important role in the development of

students‘ mathematical thinking. Effective teachers make sure that all students

are provided with opportunities to struggle with mathematics for themselves.

For example, simply inviting students to contribute a response to a

mathematical problem may not achieve anything more than cooperation from

students. Teachers need to provide students with expectations and obligations

concerning who might speak, when and in what form, and what listeners might

do (Stipek et al., 1998).

Teachers are the most important resource for developing students‘

mathematical identities (Cobb & Hodge, 2002). They influence the ways in

which student‘s think of themselves in the classroom (Walshaw, 2004). In

establishing equitable arrangements, effective teachers pay attention to the

different needs that result from different home environments, different

languages, and different capabilities and perspectives. The positive attitude

that develops raises students‘ comfort level, enlarges their knowledge base,

and gives them greater confidence in their capacity to learn and make sense of

mathematics. Confident in their own understandings, students will be more

willing to consider new ideas presented by the teacher, to consider other

students‘ ideas and assess the validity of other approaches, and to persevere in

the face of mathematical challenge.

5.
Glenda Anthony & Margaret Walshaw 151

Arranging for Learning: Effective Teachers Provide Students with

Opportunities to Make Sense of Ideas both Independently and

An important role of the teacher is to provide students with working

arrangements that are responsive to their needs. All students need some time to

think and work quietly by themselves, away from the varied and sometimes

conflicting perspectives of other students (Sfard & Keiran, 2001). At other

times, partners or peers in groups can provide the context for sharing ideas and

for learning with and from others. Group or partner arrangements are useful

not only for enhancing engagement but also for exchanging and testing ideas

and generating a higher level of thinking (Ding, Li, Piccolo, & Kulm, 2007).

In supportive, small-group environments, students learn to make conjectures

and learn how to engage in mathematical argumentation and validation

(O‘Conner & Michaels, 1996). In particular, when groups are mixed in

relation to academic achievement, insights are provided at varying levels

within the group, and these insights tend to enhance overall understandings

However, teachers need to clarify expectations of participation and ensure that

roles for participants, such as listening, writing, answering, questioning, and

critically assessing, are understood and implemented (Hunter, 2008).

Whole class discussion can provide a forum for broader interpretations

and an opportunity for students to clarify their understanding. It can also assist

students in solving challenging problems when a solution is not initially

available. Teachers have an important role to play in the discussion. Focusing

attention on efficient ways of recording, they invite students to listen to and

respect one another‘s solutions and evaluate different viewpoints. In all forms

of classroom organization it is the teacher‘s task to listen, to monitor how

often students contribute, and to keep the discussion focused. When class

discussion is an integral part of an overall strategy for teaching and learning,

students provide their teachers with information about what they know and

what they need to learn.

Building on students‘ thinking: Effective teachers plan mathematics learning

experiences that allow students to build on their existing proficiencies, interest,

and experiences.

In planning for learning, effective teachers put students‘ current

knowledge and interests at the centre of their instructional decision making.

Informed by on-going assessment of students‘ competencies, including

language, reading and listening skills, ability to cope with complexity, and

Arranging for Learning: Effective Teachers Provide Students with

Opportunities to Make Sense of Ideas both Independently and

An important role of the teacher is to provide students with working

arrangements that are responsive to their needs. All students need some time to

think and work quietly by themselves, away from the varied and sometimes

conflicting perspectives of other students (Sfard & Keiran, 2001). At other

times, partners or peers in groups can provide the context for sharing ideas and

for learning with and from others. Group or partner arrangements are useful

not only for enhancing engagement but also for exchanging and testing ideas

and generating a higher level of thinking (Ding, Li, Piccolo, & Kulm, 2007).

In supportive, small-group environments, students learn to make conjectures

and learn how to engage in mathematical argumentation and validation

(O‘Conner & Michaels, 1996). In particular, when groups are mixed in

relation to academic achievement, insights are provided at varying levels

within the group, and these insights tend to enhance overall understandings

However, teachers need to clarify expectations of participation and ensure that

roles for participants, such as listening, writing, answering, questioning, and

critically assessing, are understood and implemented (Hunter, 2008).

Whole class discussion can provide a forum for broader interpretations

and an opportunity for students to clarify their understanding. It can also assist

students in solving challenging problems when a solution is not initially

available. Teachers have an important role to play in the discussion. Focusing

attention on efficient ways of recording, they invite students to listen to and

respect one another‘s solutions and evaluate different viewpoints. In all forms

of classroom organization it is the teacher‘s task to listen, to monitor how

often students contribute, and to keep the discussion focused. When class

discussion is an integral part of an overall strategy for teaching and learning,

students provide their teachers with information about what they know and

what they need to learn.

Building on students‘ thinking: Effective teachers plan mathematics learning

experiences that allow students to build on their existing proficiencies, interest,

and experiences.

In planning for learning, effective teachers put students‘ current

knowledge and interests at the centre of their instructional decision making.

Informed by on-going assessment of students‘ competencies, including

language, reading and listening skills, ability to cope with complexity, and

6.
152 Characteristics of Effective Teaching of Mathematics: A View from the West

mathematical reasoning, teachers adjust their instruction to meet the learning

needs of their students.

With the emphasis on building on students‘ existing proficiencies,

rather than remediating weaknesses and filling gaps in students‘ knowledge,

effective teachers are able to be both responsive to their students and to the

discipline (Carpenter, Fennema, & Franke, 1996). They understand that

learners make mistakes for many reasons. Some mistakes happen because

students have not taken sufficient time or care; others are the result of

consistent, alternative interpretations of mathematical ideas that arise from

learners‘ attempts to create meaning. To help students to learn from their errors,

teachers organize discussions—with peers or the whole class—that focus

students‘ attention on the known difficulties. Asking students to share a variety

of interpretations or solution strategies enables learners to compare and re-

evaluate their ideas.

Teachers who start where students are at with their learning are also able to

design appropriate levels of challenges for their students. For low-achieving

students, teachers find ways to reduce the complexity of tasks without falling

back on repetition and busywork and without compromising the mathematical

integrity of the activity (Houssart, 2002). In order to increase the task

challenge in all classrooms, effective teachers put obstacles in the way of

solutions, remove some information, require the use of particular

representations, or ask for generalizations (Sullivan, Mousley, & Zevenbergen,

Discourse in the Classroom

Mathematical Communication: Effective Teachers Facilitate Classroom

Dialogue that Is Focused Towards Mathematical Argumentation

Teaching ways of communicating mathematically demands skilful

work on the teacher‘s part (Walshaw & Anthony, 2008). Students need to be

taught how to articulate sound mathematical explanations and how to justify

their solutions. Encouraging the use of oral, written and concrete

representations, effective teachers model the process of explaining and

justifying, guiding students into mathematical conventions. They use explicit

strategies, such as telling students how they are expected to communicate

(Hunter, 2005).

Teachers can also use the technique of revoicing (Forman & Ansell,

mathematical reasoning, teachers adjust their instruction to meet the learning

needs of their students.

With the emphasis on building on students‘ existing proficiencies,

rather than remediating weaknesses and filling gaps in students‘ knowledge,

effective teachers are able to be both responsive to their students and to the

discipline (Carpenter, Fennema, & Franke, 1996). They understand that

learners make mistakes for many reasons. Some mistakes happen because

students have not taken sufficient time or care; others are the result of

consistent, alternative interpretations of mathematical ideas that arise from

learners‘ attempts to create meaning. To help students to learn from their errors,

teachers organize discussions—with peers or the whole class—that focus

students‘ attention on the known difficulties. Asking students to share a variety

of interpretations or solution strategies enables learners to compare and re-

evaluate their ideas.

Teachers who start where students are at with their learning are also able to

design appropriate levels of challenges for their students. For low-achieving

students, teachers find ways to reduce the complexity of tasks without falling

back on repetition and busywork and without compromising the mathematical

integrity of the activity (Houssart, 2002). In order to increase the task

challenge in all classrooms, effective teachers put obstacles in the way of

solutions, remove some information, require the use of particular

representations, or ask for generalizations (Sullivan, Mousley, & Zevenbergen,

Discourse in the Classroom

Mathematical Communication: Effective Teachers Facilitate Classroom

Dialogue that Is Focused Towards Mathematical Argumentation

Teaching ways of communicating mathematically demands skilful

work on the teacher‘s part (Walshaw & Anthony, 2008). Students need to be

taught how to articulate sound mathematical explanations and how to justify

their solutions. Encouraging the use of oral, written and concrete

representations, effective teachers model the process of explaining and

justifying, guiding students into mathematical conventions. They use explicit

strategies, such as telling students how they are expected to communicate

(Hunter, 2005).

Teachers can also use the technique of revoicing (Forman & Ansell,

7.
Glenda Anthony & Margaret Walshaw 153

2001), repeating, rephrasing, or expanding on student talk. Teachers use

revoicing in many ways: (i) to highlight ideas that have come directly from

students, (ii) to help the development of students‘ understandings implicit in

those ideas, (iii) to negotiate meaning with their students, and (iv) to add new

ideas, or move discussion in another direction.

When guiding students into ways of mathematical argumentation, it is

important that the classroom learning community allows for disagreements

and enables conflicts to be resolved (Chapin & O'Connor, 2007). Teachers‘

support should involve prompts for students to work more effectively together,

to give reasons for their views and to offer their ideas and opinions. Students

and teacher both need to listen to others‘ ideas and to use debate to establish

common understandings. Listening attentively to student ideas helps teachers

to determine when to step in and out of the discussion, when to press for

understanding, when to resolve competing student claims, and when to address

misunderstandings or confusion (Lobato, Clarke, & Ellis, 2005). As students‘

attention shifts from procedural rules to making sense of mathematics,

students become less preoccupied with finding the answers and more with the

thinking that leads to the answers (Fravillig, Murphy, & Fuson, 1999).

Mathematical Language: The Use of Mathematical Language Is Shaped

When the Teacher Models Appropriate Terms and Communicates Their

Meaning in a Way that Students Understand

If students are to make sense of mathematical ideas they need an

understanding of the mathematical language used in the classroom. A key task

for the teacher is to foster the use, as well as the understanding, of appropriate

mathematical terms and expressions. Conventional mathematical language

needs to be modeled and used so that, over time, it can migrate from the

teacher to the students (Runesson, 2005). Explicit language instruction and

modeling takes into account students‘ informal understandings of the

mathematical language in use. For example, words such as ―less than‖, ―more‖,

―maybe‖, and ―half‖ can have quite different meanings within a family setting.

Students can also be helped in grasping the underlying meaning through the

use of words or symbols with the same mathematical meaning, for example,

‗x‘, ‗multiply‘, and ‗times‘.

Teachers face particular challenges in multilingual classrooms. Words

such as ―absolute value‖, ―standard deviation‖, and ―very likely‖ often lack an

equivalent term in the students‘ home language. Students find the syntax of

2001), repeating, rephrasing, or expanding on student talk. Teachers use

revoicing in many ways: (i) to highlight ideas that have come directly from

students, (ii) to help the development of students‘ understandings implicit in

those ideas, (iii) to negotiate meaning with their students, and (iv) to add new

ideas, or move discussion in another direction.

When guiding students into ways of mathematical argumentation, it is

important that the classroom learning community allows for disagreements

and enables conflicts to be resolved (Chapin & O'Connor, 2007). Teachers‘

support should involve prompts for students to work more effectively together,

to give reasons for their views and to offer their ideas and opinions. Students

and teacher both need to listen to others‘ ideas and to use debate to establish

common understandings. Listening attentively to student ideas helps teachers

to determine when to step in and out of the discussion, when to press for

understanding, when to resolve competing student claims, and when to address

misunderstandings or confusion (Lobato, Clarke, & Ellis, 2005). As students‘

attention shifts from procedural rules to making sense of mathematics,

students become less preoccupied with finding the answers and more with the

thinking that leads to the answers (Fravillig, Murphy, & Fuson, 1999).

Mathematical Language: The Use of Mathematical Language Is Shaped

When the Teacher Models Appropriate Terms and Communicates Their

Meaning in a Way that Students Understand

If students are to make sense of mathematical ideas they need an

understanding of the mathematical language used in the classroom. A key task

for the teacher is to foster the use, as well as the understanding, of appropriate

mathematical terms and expressions. Conventional mathematical language

needs to be modeled and used so that, over time, it can migrate from the

teacher to the students (Runesson, 2005). Explicit language instruction and

modeling takes into account students‘ informal understandings of the

mathematical language in use. For example, words such as ―less than‖, ―more‖,

―maybe‖, and ―half‖ can have quite different meanings within a family setting.

Students can also be helped in grasping the underlying meaning through the

use of words or symbols with the same mathematical meaning, for example,

‗x‘, ‗multiply‘, and ‗times‘.

Teachers face particular challenges in multilingual classrooms. Words

such as ―absolute value‖, ―standard deviation‖, and ―very likely‖ often lack an

equivalent term in the students‘ home language. Students find the syntax of

8.
154 Characteristics of Effective Teaching of Mathematics: A View from the West

mathematical discourse difficult. Prepositions, word order, logical structures,

and conditionals are all particularly problematic for students. Students may

also be unfamiliar with the contexts in which problems have been situated.

Language (or code) switching, which involves the teacher substituting a home

language word for a mathematical word, has been shown to enhance student

understanding, especially when teachers are able to use it to capture the

specific nuances of mathematical language (Setati & Adler, 2001).

Assessment for learning: Effective teachers use a range of assessment

practices to make students‘ thinking visible and support students‘ learning.

Mathematics teachers make use of a wide range of formal and informal

assessments to monitor learning progress, to diagnose learning, and to

determine what can be done to improve learning. Within the everyday

activities of the classroom, teachers collect information about how students

learn, what they seem to know and are able to do, and what they are interested

in. This information helps teachers determine whether particular activities are

successful and informs decisions about what they should be doing to meet the

learning needs of their students (Wiliam, 2007).

Effective teachers gather information about students by watching

students as they engage in individual or group work and by talking with them.

They monitor their students‘ understanding, notice the strategies that they

prefer, and listen to the language that they use. The moment-by-moment

assessment helps them make decisions about what questions to ask next, when

to intervene in student activity, and how to answer questions. Classroom

exchanges in the form of careful questioning provide a powerful way to assess

students‘ current knowledge and ways of thinking (Steinberg, Empson, &

Carpenter, 2004). For example, questions that have a variety of solutions, or

that can be solved in more than one way, can help teachers gain insight into

students‘ mathematical thinking and reasoning.

As well as informing the teacher, assessment for learning involves

providing feedback to students. Helpful feedback explains why something is

right or wrong, and describes what to do next, or describes strategies for

improvement. Effective teachers also provide opportunities for their students

to evaluate and assess their own work. They involve students in designing test

questions, writing success criteria, writing mathematical journals, and

presenting portfolios as evidence of growth in mathematics.

Mathematical Tasks

mathematical discourse difficult. Prepositions, word order, logical structures,

and conditionals are all particularly problematic for students. Students may

also be unfamiliar with the contexts in which problems have been situated.

Language (or code) switching, which involves the teacher substituting a home

language word for a mathematical word, has been shown to enhance student

understanding, especially when teachers are able to use it to capture the

specific nuances of mathematical language (Setati & Adler, 2001).

Assessment for learning: Effective teachers use a range of assessment

practices to make students‘ thinking visible and support students‘ learning.

Mathematics teachers make use of a wide range of formal and informal

assessments to monitor learning progress, to diagnose learning, and to

determine what can be done to improve learning. Within the everyday

activities of the classroom, teachers collect information about how students

learn, what they seem to know and are able to do, and what they are interested

in. This information helps teachers determine whether particular activities are

successful and informs decisions about what they should be doing to meet the

learning needs of their students (Wiliam, 2007).

Effective teachers gather information about students by watching

students as they engage in individual or group work and by talking with them.

They monitor their students‘ understanding, notice the strategies that they

prefer, and listen to the language that they use. The moment-by-moment

assessment helps them make decisions about what questions to ask next, when

to intervene in student activity, and how to answer questions. Classroom

exchanges in the form of careful questioning provide a powerful way to assess

students‘ current knowledge and ways of thinking (Steinberg, Empson, &

Carpenter, 2004). For example, questions that have a variety of solutions, or

that can be solved in more than one way, can help teachers gain insight into

students‘ mathematical thinking and reasoning.

As well as informing the teacher, assessment for learning involves

providing feedback to students. Helpful feedback explains why something is

right or wrong, and describes what to do next, or describes strategies for

improvement. Effective teachers also provide opportunities for their students

to evaluate and assess their own work. They involve students in designing test

questions, writing success criteria, writing mathematical journals, and

presenting portfolios as evidence of growth in mathematics.

Mathematical Tasks

9.
Glenda Anthony & Margaret Walshaw 155

Worthwhile Tasks: Effective Teachers Understand that Selected Tasks and

Examples Influence How Students Come to View, Develop, Use, and Make

Sense of Mathematics

Tasks convey what doing mathematics is all about. By engaging in

tasks, students develop ideas about the nature of mathematics and mathematics

learning (Hodge, Zhao, Visnovska, & Cobb, 2007). Effective teachers take

care to ensure that tasks help all students to progress in their cumulative

understanding in a particular domain and engage in high-level mathematical

thinking (Henningsen & Stein, 1997).

By posing tasks and learning experiences that allow students to do

original thinking about important mathematical concepts and relationships,

teachers help learners to develop proficient ways of doing, and learning about

mathematics (Ainley, Pratt, & Hansen, 2006). Tasks should involve more than

practicing taught algorithms; they should provide opportunities for students to

struggle with important mathematical ideas. Posing tasks of an appropriate

level of mathematical challenge fosters students‘ development and use of an

increasingly sophisticated range of mathematical thinking and reasoning

activities (Watson & De Geest, 2005).

Working with open-ended and modeling tasks, in particular, provides students

with opportunities not just to apply mathematics but also to learn new

mathematics through engagement in a range of problem-solving strategies.

Essential skill development can also be part of ‗doing‘ mathematics problems.

For example, learning about perimeter and area provides opportunities to

practice multiplication and fractions computations. Modeling activities

challenge students to make sense of both the contexts and the mathematics

embedded in the tasks (English, 2006; Galbraith, Stilman, Brown, & Edwards,

2007). When working with real life complex systems, students learn that doing

mathematics involves more than simply producing right answers; applying

mathematics in everyday settings helps students learn about the value of

mathematics in society and its contributions to other disciplines.

Making Connections: Effective Teachers Support Students to Create

Connections, between Different Ways of Solving Problems, between

Mathematical Topics, and between Mathematics and Everyday

Students need to develop understandings of how a concept or skill is

Worthwhile Tasks: Effective Teachers Understand that Selected Tasks and

Examples Influence How Students Come to View, Develop, Use, and Make

Sense of Mathematics

Tasks convey what doing mathematics is all about. By engaging in

tasks, students develop ideas about the nature of mathematics and mathematics

learning (Hodge, Zhao, Visnovska, & Cobb, 2007). Effective teachers take

care to ensure that tasks help all students to progress in their cumulative

understanding in a particular domain and engage in high-level mathematical

thinking (Henningsen & Stein, 1997).

By posing tasks and learning experiences that allow students to do

original thinking about important mathematical concepts and relationships,

teachers help learners to develop proficient ways of doing, and learning about

mathematics (Ainley, Pratt, & Hansen, 2006). Tasks should involve more than

practicing taught algorithms; they should provide opportunities for students to

struggle with important mathematical ideas. Posing tasks of an appropriate

level of mathematical challenge fosters students‘ development and use of an

increasingly sophisticated range of mathematical thinking and reasoning

activities (Watson & De Geest, 2005).

Working with open-ended and modeling tasks, in particular, provides students

with opportunities not just to apply mathematics but also to learn new

mathematics through engagement in a range of problem-solving strategies.

Essential skill development can also be part of ‗doing‘ mathematics problems.

For example, learning about perimeter and area provides opportunities to

practice multiplication and fractions computations. Modeling activities

challenge students to make sense of both the contexts and the mathematics

embedded in the tasks (English, 2006; Galbraith, Stilman, Brown, & Edwards,

2007). When working with real life complex systems, students learn that doing

mathematics involves more than simply producing right answers; applying

mathematics in everyday settings helps students learn about the value of

mathematics in society and its contributions to other disciplines.

Making Connections: Effective Teachers Support Students to Create

Connections, between Different Ways of Solving Problems, between

Mathematical Topics, and between Mathematics and Everyday

Students need to develop understandings of how a concept or skill is

10.
156 Characteristics of Effective Teaching of Mathematics: A View from the West

connected in multiple ways to other mathematical ideas (Askew, Brown,

Rhodes, Johnson, & Wiliam, 1997). Effective teachers support students to

make connections by providing them with opportunities to engage in complex

tasks and by setting expectations that they explain their thinking and solution

strategies and that they listen to the thinking of others (Anghileri, 2006).

Teachers can assist students to make connections by using carefully sequenced

examples, including examples of students‘ own solution strategies, to illustrate

key mathematical ideas (Watson & Mason, 2006). By progressively

introducing modifications that build on students‘ existing understanding,

teachers can emphasize the links between different ideas in mathematics. For

example, a teacher can introduce the idea of ‗doubling 6‘ as an alternative

strategy to ‗6 add 6‘.

Making connections across mathematical topics is important for

developing conceptual understanding. For example, the topics of fractions,

decimals, percentages, and proportions, while learning areas in their own right,

can usefully be linked through exploration of differing representations (e.g., ½

= 50%) or through problems involving everyday contexts (e.g., determining

fuel costs for a car trip).

Teachers can also help students to make connections to real

experiences. When students find they can use mathematics as a tool for

solving significant problems in their everyday lives, they begin to view the

subject as relevant and interesting.

Tools and Representations: Effective Teachers Carefully Select Tools and

Representations to Provide Support for Students’ Thinking.

Effective teachers draw on a range of representations and tools to

support learners‘ mathematical development. Tools to support and extend

mathematical reasoning and sense-making come in many forms including the

number system itself, algebraic symbolism, graphs, diagrams, models,

equations, notations, images, analogies, metaphors, stories, textbooks, and

Teachers have a critical role to play in ensuring that tools are used

effectively to support students to organize their mathematical reasoning and

support their sense-making (Blanton & Kaput, 2005). Providing students

access to multiple representations helps them to develop conceptual and

computational flexibility. Using an appropriate model, learners can think

through a problem, or test ideas. Care is needed, however, particularly when

connected in multiple ways to other mathematical ideas (Askew, Brown,

Rhodes, Johnson, & Wiliam, 1997). Effective teachers support students to

make connections by providing them with opportunities to engage in complex

tasks and by setting expectations that they explain their thinking and solution

strategies and that they listen to the thinking of others (Anghileri, 2006).

Teachers can assist students to make connections by using carefully sequenced

examples, including examples of students‘ own solution strategies, to illustrate

key mathematical ideas (Watson & Mason, 2006). By progressively

introducing modifications that build on students‘ existing understanding,

teachers can emphasize the links between different ideas in mathematics. For

example, a teacher can introduce the idea of ‗doubling 6‘ as an alternative

strategy to ‗6 add 6‘.

Making connections across mathematical topics is important for

developing conceptual understanding. For example, the topics of fractions,

decimals, percentages, and proportions, while learning areas in their own right,

can usefully be linked through exploration of differing representations (e.g., ½

= 50%) or through problems involving everyday contexts (e.g., determining

fuel costs for a car trip).

Teachers can also help students to make connections to real

experiences. When students find they can use mathematics as a tool for

solving significant problems in their everyday lives, they begin to view the

subject as relevant and interesting.

Tools and Representations: Effective Teachers Carefully Select Tools and

Representations to Provide Support for Students’ Thinking.

Effective teachers draw on a range of representations and tools to

support learners‘ mathematical development. Tools to support and extend

mathematical reasoning and sense-making come in many forms including the

number system itself, algebraic symbolism, graphs, diagrams, models,

equations, notations, images, analogies, metaphors, stories, textbooks, and

Teachers have a critical role to play in ensuring that tools are used

effectively to support students to organize their mathematical reasoning and

support their sense-making (Blanton & Kaput, 2005). Providing students

access to multiple representations helps them to develop conceptual and

computational flexibility. Using an appropriate model, learners can think

through a problem, or test ideas. Care is needed, however, particularly when

11.
Glenda Anthony & Margaret Walshaw 157

using pre-designed concrete materials (e.g., number lines, tens-frames), to

ensure that all students are able to make sense of the materials in the

mathematically intended way.

Tools are helpful in communicating ideas that are otherwise difficult to

talk about or write about. Teachers and students can use representations, such

as stories, pictures, symbols, concrete objects, and virtual manipulatives, to

assist in communicating their thinking to others. As well as ready-made tools,

effective teachers acknowledge the value of students generating and using

their own representations, but it an invented notation, or a graphical, pictorial,

tabular, or geometric representation. For example, young children frequently

create their own pictorial representations to tell stories before using the more

formal graphical tools that are fundamental to the statistics curriculum (Chick,

Pfannkuch, & Watson, 2005).

An increasing array of new technological tools is available for use in

the mathematics classroom. In addition to calculator and computer

applications, new technologies include presentation technologies (e.g., the

interactive whiteboard (Zevenbergen & Lerman, 2008), digital and mobile

technologies, and the Internet. These dynamic graphical, numerical, and visual

technological applications provide new opportunities for teachers and students

to interact, represent, and explore mathematical concepts.

Teachers must be knowledgeable decision makers in determining when

and how technology is used to support learning (Thomas & Chinnappan,

2008). Effective teachers take time to share the decision making about

technology-based approaches with their students. They require students to

monitor their own underuse or overuse of technology. With guidance from

teachers, technology can support independent inquiry and shared knowledge

Teacher Learning and Knowledge

Teacher knowledge: Effective Teachers Develop and Use Sound

Knowledge to Initiate Learning and to Act Responsively towards the

Mathematical Needs of All Their Students

How teachers organize classroom instruction is very much dependent

on what they know and believe about mathematics and on what they

understand about mathematics teaching and learning. Sound content

knowledge enables teachers to represent mathematics as a coherent and

using pre-designed concrete materials (e.g., number lines, tens-frames), to

ensure that all students are able to make sense of the materials in the

mathematically intended way.

Tools are helpful in communicating ideas that are otherwise difficult to

talk about or write about. Teachers and students can use representations, such

as stories, pictures, symbols, concrete objects, and virtual manipulatives, to

assist in communicating their thinking to others. As well as ready-made tools,

effective teachers acknowledge the value of students generating and using

their own representations, but it an invented notation, or a graphical, pictorial,

tabular, or geometric representation. For example, young children frequently

create their own pictorial representations to tell stories before using the more

formal graphical tools that are fundamental to the statistics curriculum (Chick,

Pfannkuch, & Watson, 2005).

An increasing array of new technological tools is available for use in

the mathematics classroom. In addition to calculator and computer

applications, new technologies include presentation technologies (e.g., the

interactive whiteboard (Zevenbergen & Lerman, 2008), digital and mobile

technologies, and the Internet. These dynamic graphical, numerical, and visual

technological applications provide new opportunities for teachers and students

to interact, represent, and explore mathematical concepts.

Teachers must be knowledgeable decision makers in determining when

and how technology is used to support learning (Thomas & Chinnappan,

2008). Effective teachers take time to share the decision making about

technology-based approaches with their students. They require students to

monitor their own underuse or overuse of technology. With guidance from

teachers, technology can support independent inquiry and shared knowledge

Teacher Learning and Knowledge

Teacher knowledge: Effective Teachers Develop and Use Sound

Knowledge to Initiate Learning and to Act Responsively towards the

Mathematical Needs of All Their Students

How teachers organize classroom instruction is very much dependent

on what they know and believe about mathematics and on what they

understand about mathematics teaching and learning. Sound content

knowledge enables teachers to represent mathematics as a coherent and

12.
158 Characteristics of Effective Teaching of Mathematics: A View from the West

connected system (Ball & Bass, 2000). When their knowledge is robust,

teachers are able to assess their students‘ current level of mathematical

understanding. They use their knowledge to make key decisions concerning

mathematical tasks, classroom resources, talk, and actions that feed into or

arise out of the learning process.

No matter how good their teaching intentions, teachers must work out how

they can best help their students grasp core mathematical ideas (Hill, Rowan,

& Bass, 2005). In addition to having clear ideas about how they might build

students‘ procedural proficiency they need to know how to extend and

challenge students‘ thinking. To do this successfully they need substantial

pedagogical content knowledge and a grounded understanding of students as

learners. Such teachers are aware of the possibility of students‘ conceptions

and misconceptions. This knowledge informs teachers‘ on-the-spot classroom

decision making. It enables more finely tuned listening and questioning, more

focused and connected planning, and more insightful evaluation of student

The development of teacher knowledge is greatly enhanced by efforts

within the wider school community to improve teachers‘ own understandings

of mathematics and mathematics teaching and learning (Cobb & McClain,

2001; Sherin, 2002). If teachers‘ knowledge is to be enhanced, it needs the

material, systems, human and emotional support provided by professional

development initiatives. Support and resourcing can also come from the joint

efforts of other mathematics teachers within the school (Kazemi, 2008).

This paper has examined what the research says about effective

teaching of mathematics within western education systems. Current research

findings indicate that the nature of classroom mathematics teaching

significantly affects the nature and outcome of student learning. Our

conceptualization of teaching as nested within a systems network (Tower &

Davis, 2002), moves us away from prescribing pedagogical practice, towards

an understanding of pedagogical practice as occasioning students outcomes. In

this paper we have offered important insights from research about how that

occasioning might take place. Certain patterns have emerged that have

enabled us to foreground ways of doing and being that mark out an effective

pedagogical practice. Each aspect, of course, constitutes but one piece of

evidence and must be read as accounting for one variable, amongst many,

within the teaching nested system. As Hiebert and Grouws (2007) have noted,

―classrooms are filled with complex dynamics, and many factors could be

connected system (Ball & Bass, 2000). When their knowledge is robust,

teachers are able to assess their students‘ current level of mathematical

understanding. They use their knowledge to make key decisions concerning

mathematical tasks, classroom resources, talk, and actions that feed into or

arise out of the learning process.

No matter how good their teaching intentions, teachers must work out how

they can best help their students grasp core mathematical ideas (Hill, Rowan,

& Bass, 2005). In addition to having clear ideas about how they might build

students‘ procedural proficiency they need to know how to extend and

challenge students‘ thinking. To do this successfully they need substantial

pedagogical content knowledge and a grounded understanding of students as

learners. Such teachers are aware of the possibility of students‘ conceptions

and misconceptions. This knowledge informs teachers‘ on-the-spot classroom

decision making. It enables more finely tuned listening and questioning, more

focused and connected planning, and more insightful evaluation of student

The development of teacher knowledge is greatly enhanced by efforts

within the wider school community to improve teachers‘ own understandings

of mathematics and mathematics teaching and learning (Cobb & McClain,

2001; Sherin, 2002). If teachers‘ knowledge is to be enhanced, it needs the

material, systems, human and emotional support provided by professional

development initiatives. Support and resourcing can also come from the joint

efforts of other mathematics teachers within the school (Kazemi, 2008).

This paper has examined what the research says about effective

teaching of mathematics within western education systems. Current research

findings indicate that the nature of classroom mathematics teaching

significantly affects the nature and outcome of student learning. Our

conceptualization of teaching as nested within a systems network (Tower &

Davis, 2002), moves us away from prescribing pedagogical practice, towards

an understanding of pedagogical practice as occasioning students outcomes. In

this paper we have offered important insights from research about how that

occasioning might take place. Certain patterns have emerged that have

enabled us to foreground ways of doing and being that mark out an effective

pedagogical practice. Each aspect, of course, constitutes but one piece of

evidence and must be read as accounting for one variable, amongst many,

within the teaching nested system. As Hiebert and Grouws (2007) have noted,

―classrooms are filled with complex dynamics, and many factors could be

13.
Glenda Anthony & Margaret Walshaw 159

responsible for increased student learning‖ (p. 371). Taking all the factors

together has allowed us to offer our ten principles as a starting point for

discussions on effective pedagogy.

Whilst the principles concern classroom pedagogical practices, we are well

aware that significant improvements in student learning outcomes will require

the efforts of many. Changes need to be negotiated and carried through in

classrooms; in mathematics teams, departments, or faculties; and in teacher

education programs. They need to be supported by resourcing. Everyone

involved in mathematics education—teachers, principals, teacher educators,

researchers, parents, specialist support services, school boards, and policy

makers, as well as students themselves—has a role to play in enhancing

students‘ mathematical proficiency. Schools, communities, and nations need to

ensure that their teachers have the knowledge, skills, resourcing, and

incentives to provide students with the very best possible learning

opportunities. In this way, every student will be able to enhance their

mathematical proficiency. In this way, too, every student has the opportunity to

enhance their view of themselves as a powerful mathematics learner.

References

Ainley, J., Pratt, D., & Hansen, A. (2006). Connecting engagement and focus

in pedagogic task design. British Educational Research Journal, 32(1),

23–38.

Anghileri, J. (2006). Scaffolding practices that enhance mathematics learning.

Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 9, 33-52.

Angier, C., & Povey, H. (1999). One teacher and a class of school students:

Their perception of the culture of their mathematics classroom and its

construction. Educational Review, 51, 147-160.

Anthony, G., & Walshaw, M. (2007). Effective pedagogy in

mathematics/pāngarau: Best evidence synthesis iteration [BES].

Wellington: Ministry of Education.

Anthony, G., & Walshaw, M. (2008). Characteristics of effective pedagogy for

mathematics education. In H. Forgasz, T. Barkatsas, A. Bishop, B.

Clarke, P. Sullivan, S. Keast, W. T. Seah, & S. Willis (Eds.), Research in

mathematics education in Australasia 2004-2007 (pp. 195-222).

Rotterdam Netherlands: Sense.

Askew, M., Brown, M., Rhodes, V., Johnson, D., & Wiliam, D. (1997).

Effective teachers of numeracy. London: Kings College.

responsible for increased student learning‖ (p. 371). Taking all the factors

together has allowed us to offer our ten principles as a starting point for

discussions on effective pedagogy.

Whilst the principles concern classroom pedagogical practices, we are well

aware that significant improvements in student learning outcomes will require

the efforts of many. Changes need to be negotiated and carried through in

classrooms; in mathematics teams, departments, or faculties; and in teacher

education programs. They need to be supported by resourcing. Everyone

involved in mathematics education—teachers, principals, teacher educators,

researchers, parents, specialist support services, school boards, and policy

makers, as well as students themselves—has a role to play in enhancing

students‘ mathematical proficiency. Schools, communities, and nations need to

ensure that their teachers have the knowledge, skills, resourcing, and

incentives to provide students with the very best possible learning

opportunities. In this way, every student will be able to enhance their

mathematical proficiency. In this way, too, every student has the opportunity to

enhance their view of themselves as a powerful mathematics learner.

References

Ainley, J., Pratt, D., & Hansen, A. (2006). Connecting engagement and focus

in pedagogic task design. British Educational Research Journal, 32(1),

23–38.

Anghileri, J. (2006). Scaffolding practices that enhance mathematics learning.

Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 9, 33-52.

Angier, C., & Povey, H. (1999). One teacher and a class of school students:

Their perception of the culture of their mathematics classroom and its

construction. Educational Review, 51, 147-160.

Anthony, G., & Walshaw, M. (2007). Effective pedagogy in

mathematics/pāngarau: Best evidence synthesis iteration [BES].

Wellington: Ministry of Education.

Anthony, G., & Walshaw, M. (2008). Characteristics of effective pedagogy for

mathematics education. In H. Forgasz, T. Barkatsas, A. Bishop, B.

Clarke, P. Sullivan, S. Keast, W. T. Seah, & S. Willis (Eds.), Research in

mathematics education in Australasia 2004-2007 (pp. 195-222).

Rotterdam Netherlands: Sense.

Askew, M., Brown, M., Rhodes, V., Johnson, D., & Wiliam, D. (1997).

Effective teachers of numeracy. London: Kings College.

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160 Characteristics of Effective Teaching of Mathematics: A View from the West

Ball, D., & Bass, H. (2000). Interweaving content and pedagogy in teaching

and learning to teach: Knowing and using mathematics. In J. Boaler

(Ed.), Multiple perspectives on the teaching and learning of

mathematics (pp. 83–104). Westport, CT: Ablex.

Blanton, M., & Kaput, J. (2005). Characterizing a classroom practice that

promotes algebraic reasoning. Journal for Research in Mathematics

Education, 36, 412-446.

Boaler, J. (2008). Promoting 'relational equity' and high mathematics

achievement through an innovative mixed-ability approach. British

Educational Research Journal, 34, 167-194.

Carpenter, T., Fennema, E., & Franke, M. (1996). Cognitively guided

instruction: A knowledge base for reform in primary mathematics

instruction. The Elementary School Journal, 97(1), 3-20.

Chapin, S. H., & O‘Connor, C. (2007). Academically productive talk:

Supporting students' learning in mathematics. In W. G. Martin, M.

Strutchens, & P. Elliot (Eds.), The learning of mathematics (pp. 113-

139). Reston VA: NCTM.

Chick, H., Pfannkuch, M., & Watson, J. (2005). Transnumerative thinking:

Finding and telling stories within data. Curriculum Matters, 1, 86-107.

Cobb, P., & Hodge, L. L. (2002). A relational perspective on issues of cultural

diversity and equity as they play out in the mathematics classroom.

Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 4, 249–284.

Cobb, P., & McClain, K. (2001). An approach for supporting teachers‘'

learning in social context. In F. Lin & T. Cooney (Eds.), Making sense of

mathematics teacher education (pp. 207-231). Utrecht: Kluwer

Academic Publishers.

Davydov, V.V., & Radzikhovskii, L.A. (1985). Vygotsky‘s theory and the

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communication, and cognition: Vygotskian perspectives (pp. 35-65).

New York: Cambridge University Press.

Ding, M., Li, X., Piccolo, D., & Kulm, G. (2007). Teaching interventions in

cooperative learning mathematics classes. The Journal of Educational

Research, 100, 162-175.

Doig, B., McCrae, B., & Rowe, K. J. (2003). A good start to numeracy:

Effective numeracy strategies from research and practice in early

childhood: Australian Council of Educational Research.

English, L. D. (2006). Mathematical modeling in the primary school:

Children‘s construction of a consumer guide. Educational Studies in

Ball, D., & Bass, H. (2000). Interweaving content and pedagogy in teaching

and learning to teach: Knowing and using mathematics. In J. Boaler

(Ed.), Multiple perspectives on the teaching and learning of

mathematics (pp. 83–104). Westport, CT: Ablex.

Blanton, M., & Kaput, J. (2005). Characterizing a classroom practice that

promotes algebraic reasoning. Journal for Research in Mathematics

Education, 36, 412-446.

Boaler, J. (2008). Promoting 'relational equity' and high mathematics

achievement through an innovative mixed-ability approach. British

Educational Research Journal, 34, 167-194.

Carpenter, T., Fennema, E., & Franke, M. (1996). Cognitively guided

instruction: A knowledge base for reform in primary mathematics

instruction. The Elementary School Journal, 97(1), 3-20.

Chapin, S. H., & O‘Connor, C. (2007). Academically productive talk:

Supporting students' learning in mathematics. In W. G. Martin, M.

Strutchens, & P. Elliot (Eds.), The learning of mathematics (pp. 113-

139). Reston VA: NCTM.

Chick, H., Pfannkuch, M., & Watson, J. (2005). Transnumerative thinking:

Finding and telling stories within data. Curriculum Matters, 1, 86-107.

Cobb, P., & Hodge, L. L. (2002). A relational perspective on issues of cultural

diversity and equity as they play out in the mathematics classroom.

Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 4, 249–284.

Cobb, P., & McClain, K. (2001). An approach for supporting teachers‘'

learning in social context. In F. Lin & T. Cooney (Eds.), Making sense of

mathematics teacher education (pp. 207-231). Utrecht: Kluwer

Academic Publishers.

Davydov, V.V., & Radzikhovskii, L.A. (1985). Vygotsky‘s theory and the

activity-oriented approach in psychology. In J.V. Wertsch (Ed.), Culture,

communication, and cognition: Vygotskian perspectives (pp. 35-65).

New York: Cambridge University Press.

Ding, M., Li, X., Piccolo, D., & Kulm, G. (2007). Teaching interventions in

cooperative learning mathematics classes. The Journal of Educational

Research, 100, 162-175.

Doig, B., McCrae, B., & Rowe, K. J. (2003). A good start to numeracy:

Effective numeracy strategies from research and practice in early

childhood: Australian Council of Educational Research.

English, L. D. (2006). Mathematical modeling in the primary school:

Children‘s construction of a consumer guide. Educational Studies in

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Mathematics, 63, 303–323.

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classroom community. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 46, 114–

142.

Fraivillig, J., Murphy, L., & Fuson, K. (1999). Advancing children‘s

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W. Blum, & S. Khan (Eds.), Mathematical modeling: Education,

engineering and economic (pp. 130–140). Chichester, UK: Horwood.

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Mathematics, 63, 303–323.

Forman, E., & Ansell, E. (2001). The multiple voices of a mathematics

classroom community. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 46, 114–

142.

Fraivillig, J., Murphy, L., & Fuson, K. (1999). Advancing children‘s

mathematical thinking in Everyday Mathematics classrooms. Journal

for Research in Mathematics Education, 30, 148–170.

Galbraith, P., Stillman, G., Brown, J., & Edwards, I. (2007). Facilitating

middle secondary modelling competencies. In C. Haines, P. Galbraith,

W. Blum, & S. Khan (Eds.), Mathematical modeling: Education,

engineering and economic (pp. 130–140). Chichester, UK: Horwood.

Henningsen, M., & Stein, M. (1997). Mathematical tasks and student cognition:

Classroom-based factors that support and inhibit high-level

mathematical thinking and reasoning. Journal for Research in

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teaching and learning (Vol. 1 & 2). Reston VA: NCTM.

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A reformulation of telling. Journal for Research in Mathematics

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Martin, T. S. (Ed.) (2007) Mathematics teaching today: Improving practice,

improving student learning (2nd ed.). Reston, VA: Author.

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Glenda Anthony & Margaret Walshaw 163

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students in an ordinary secondary classroom. Journal of Mathematical

Behavior, 20, 461–475.

Watson, A., & De Geest, E. (2005). Principled teaching for deep progress:

Improving mathematical learning beyond methods and material.

Educational Studies in Mathematics, 58, 209–234.

Watson, A., & Mason, J. (2006). Seeing an exercise as a single mathematical

object: Using variation to structure sense-making. Mathematical

Thinking and Learning, 8, 91–111.

secondary-language mathematics learners. For the Learning of

Mathematics, 18, 34–42.

Sfard, A., & Keiran, C. (2001). Cognition as communication: Rethinking

learning-by-talking through multi-faceted analysis of students‘

mathematical interactions. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 8(1), 42–76.

Sherin, M. G. (2002). When teaching becomes learning. Cognition and

instruction, 20(2), 119–150.

Steinberg, R. M., Empson, S. B., & Carpenter, T. P. (2004). Inquiry into

children‘s mathematical thinking as a means to teacher change. Journal

of Mathematics Teacher Education, 7, 237–267.

Stipek, D., Salmon, J. M., Givvin, K. B., Kazemi, E., Saxe, G., & MacGyvers,

V. L. (1998). The value (and convergence) of practices suggested by

motivation research and promoted by mathematics education reformers.

Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 29, 465–488.

Sullivan, P., Mousley, J., & Zevenbergen, R. (2006). Teacher actions to

maximize mathematics learning opportunities in heterogeneous

classrooms. International Journal of Science and Mathematics

Education, 4(1), 117–143.

Thomas, M., & Chinnappan, M. (2008). Teaching and learning with

technology: Realizing the potential. In H. Forgasz et al. (Eds.), Research

in mathematics education in Australasia 2004–2007 (pp. 165–193).

Rotterdam Netherlands: Sense.

Towers, J., & Davies, B. (2002). Structuring occasions. Educational Studies in

Mathematics, 49, 313-340.

Walshaw, M. (2004). A powerful theory of active engagement. For the

Learning of Mathematics, 24(3), 4-10.

Walshaw, M., & Anthony, G. (2008). The role of pedagogy in classroom

discourse: A review of recent research into mathematics. Review of

Educational Research, 78, 516-551.

Watson, A. (2002). Instances of mathematical thinking among low attaining

students in an ordinary secondary classroom. Journal of Mathematical

Behavior, 20, 461–475.

Watson, A., & De Geest, E. (2005). Principled teaching for deep progress:

Improving mathematical learning beyond methods and material.

Educational Studies in Mathematics, 58, 209–234.

Watson, A., & Mason, J. (2006). Seeing an exercise as a single mathematical

object: Using variation to structure sense-making. Mathematical

Thinking and Learning, 8, 91–111.

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164 Characteristics of Effective Teaching of Mathematics: A View from the West

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interactive whiteboards: New learning, spaces or reproduction of old

technologies. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 20(1), 107–125.

Glenda Anthony

Massey University, New Zealand

Email: g.j.anthony@massey.ac.nz

Margaret Walshaw

Massey University, New Zealand

Email: m.a.walshaw@massey.ac.nz

Wiliam, D. (2007). Keeping learning on track. In F. K. Lester (Ed.), Second

handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 1053-

1098). Charlotte, NC: Information Age.

Zevenbergen, R., & Lerman, S. (2008). Learning environments using

interactive whiteboards: New learning, spaces or reproduction of old

technologies. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 20(1), 107–125.

Glenda Anthony

Massey University, New Zealand

Email: g.j.anthony@massey.ac.nz

Margaret Walshaw

Massey University, New Zealand

Email: m.a.walshaw@massey.ac.nz